(REPORT) IPCC Widens Scope to Climate Change Variables

Scientists have found a key indicator in determining whether the presence of carbon, found in the Earth’s mantle, is derived from continental crust – a step toward better understanding the history of crustal formation on Earth’s surface and the rate at which tectonic plates have moved throughout geologic time, which can be linked to the cooling of Earth’s mantle.

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Results of a new study published in the journal Nature Geoscience show evidence of varying ratios of boron isotopes in igneous rocks, known as carbonatites, of different ages. The research was led by Antonio Simonetti, associate professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences at the University of Notre Dame.

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Three theories exist regarding the source of carbon found within the Earth’s mantle: It is of primordial origin, formed during the creation of the planet 4.56 billion years ago; it is a result of planetary collision; or it had been present in marine environments or continental crust, and recycled back into the mantle in areas of subduction, where tectonic plates shifted, one diving beneath the other.

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When investigating the 5th IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) presented in 2014, it was clear they are paying attention to “preparedness” rather than prevention (mainly aimed at us stupid humans). So I would suggest, no matter how loud some scream “Look at science” one can comfortably say “I am”. Once this is established, we can more clearly see how true science has been kidnapped by politics.

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In addition, organic matter from dead organisms can also be incorporated into oceanic sediments. Ocean deposits are by far the biggest sink of carbon on the planet. Owing to its large reservoir of reactive carbon and the long timescale of its turnover, the ocean effectively controls atmospheric CO2 levels on the time scale of millennia.

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It is the dynamic balance between the CO2 content of the atmosphere (via dissolution into ocean waters) and the biologically driven net transport of organic (dead plant and animal matter) and inorganic carbon (calcium carbonate) to the deep ocean (biological pump) which largely determines the atmospheric CO2 levels.

The processes of biogenic particle formation, modification and sedimentation which together constitute the biological pump are affected by atmospheric forcing, upper ocean physics and ambient chemical conditions, all of them expected to be modulated by future climate change. The biological pump therefore is subject to various positive and negative feedback processes.

Stay Tuned For More Upcoming……

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BREAKING NEWS – IPCC Finally Relents to Other Reasons for Global Warming Trends

I am completing my article on new findings (which are not new) which have directed the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to shift their direction and now allowing other scientific disciplines into their Assessment Report.

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Just a brief teaser for now – new studies of the interaction of ocean currents, mantle plumes, and carbon sources tell a very different story which does not support the 1988 made up name ‘global warming’. In short, my research and that of others maintains there is, and has always been, warming and cooling trends on Earth. It is the “cause” which should have been the focus of these cyclical events. Furthermore, the cause might even be secondary (or at least simultaneous) to PREPAREDNESS. I say preparedness because most sources of cause goes beyond “prevention”.

Article Coming This Weekend….

 

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Thanks to you who have pitched in. News is popping and we plan to be here with our ability to highlight and navigate in a way you can understand – then further your ability to discern how these new scientific discoveries can have a ‘real-time’ effect in our lives.   Cheers, Mitch

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Thanks to you who have pitched in. News is popping and we plan to be here with our ability to highlight and navigate in a way you can understand – then further your ability to discern how these new scientific discoveries can have a ‘real-time’ effect in our lives.   Cheers, Mitch

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Massive ‘lake’ Discovered Under Volcano in Bolivia, South America

Scientists from the University of Bristol and partner universities in Germany, France, Canada and Wales, have discovered a huge magma lake, 9.3 miles (15 kilometers) below a dormant volcano in Bolivia, South America.

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The body of water – which is dissolved into partially molten rock at a temperature of almost 1832° Fahrenheit (1,000° Celsius) – is the equivalent to what is found in some of the world’s giant freshwater lakes, such as Lake Superior.

The find has now led scientists to consider if similar bodies of water may be ‘hiding’ under other volcanoes and could help explain why and how volcanoes erupt.

Professor Jon Blundy, from the School of Earth Sciences, took part in an international multidisciplinary research project at Cerro Uturuncu volcano in the Bolivian Altiplano.

He said: “The Bolivian Altiplano has been the site of extensive volcanism over past 10 million years, although there are no currently active volcanoes there.

“The Altiplano is underlain by a large geophysical anomaly at depths of 9.3 miles (15 km) below the surface of the earth.

“This anomaly has a volume of 9.32 million cubic miles (1.5 million cubic kilometers) or more and is characterized by reduced seismic wave speeds and increased electrical conductivity. This indicates the presence of molten rock.

“The rock is not fully molten, but partially molten. Only about 10 to 20 percent of the rock is actually liquid; the rest is solid. The rock at these depths is at a temperature of about 1778°F (970°C).”

In order to characterize the partially molten region the team performed high temperature and pressure experiments at the University of Orleans in France.

This measured the electrical conductivity of the molten rock in the ‘anomalous’ region and concluded that there must be about eight to ten percent of water dissolved in the silicate melt.

Professor Blundy added: “This is a large value. It agrees with estimates made for the volcanic rocks of Uturuncu using high temperature and pressure experiments to match the chemical composition of crystals.

“Silicate melt can only dissolve water at high pressure; at lower pressure this water comes out of the solution and forms bubbles. Crucially – these bubbles can drive volcanic eruptions.

“The eight to ten percent of water dissolved in the massive anomaly region amounts to a total mass of water equivalent to what is found in some of the giant freshwater lakes of North America.”

Professor Fabrice Gaillard at University of Orleans explained: “Ten per cent by weight of dissolved water means that there is one molecule of water for every three molecules of silicate. This is an extraordinarily large fraction of water, helping to explain why these silicate liquids are so electrically conductive.”

The researchers hope that better understanding of how water can trigger volcanic eruptions can improve predictions of when it is going to erupt.

New Theory of Gravity Might Explain Dark Matter

A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper today in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity.

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In 2010, Erik Verlinde surprised the world with a completely new theory of gravity. According to Verlinde, gravity is not a fundamental force of nature, but an emergent phenomenon. In the same way that temperature arises from the movement of microscopic particles, gravity emerges from the changes of fundamental bits of information, stored in the very structure of spacetime.

Newton’s law from information

In his 2010 article (On the origin of gravity and the laws of Newton), Verlinde showed how Newton’s famous second law, which describes how apples fall from trees and satellites stay in orbit, can be derived from these underlying microscopic building blocks. Extending his previous work and work done by others, Verlinde now shows how to understand the curious behaviour of stars in galaxies without adding the puzzling dark matter.

The outer regions of galaxies, like our own Milky Way, rotate much faster around the centre than can be accounted for by the quantity of ordinary matter like stars, planets and interstellar gasses. Something else has to produce the required amount of gravitational force, so physicists proposed the existence of dark matter. Dark matter seems to dominate our universe, comprising more than 80 percent of all matter. Hitherto, the alleged dark matter particles have never been observed, despite many efforts to detect them.

No need for dark matter

According to Erik Verlinde, there is no need to add a mysterious dark matter particle to the theory. In a new paper, which appeared today on the ArXiv preprint server, Verlinde shows how his theory of gravity accurately predicts the velocities by which the stars rotate around the center of the Milky Way, as well as the motion of stars inside other galaxies.

“We have evidence that this new view of gravity actually agrees with the observations, ” says Verlinde. “At large scales, it seems, gravity just doesn’t behave the way Einstein’s theory predicts.”

At first glance, Verlinde’s theory presents features similar to modified theories of gravity like MOND (modified Newtonian Dynamics, Mordehai Milgrom (1983)). However, where MOND tunes the theory to match the observations, Verlinde’s theory starts from first principles. “A totally different starting point,” according to Verlinde.

Adapting the holographic principle

One of the ingredients in Verlinde’s theory is an adaptation of the holographic principle, introduced by his tutor Gerard ‘t Hooft (Nobel Prize 1999, Utrecht University) and Leonard Susskind (Stanford University). According to the holographic principle, all the information in the entire universe can be described on a giant imaginary sphere around it. Verlinde now shows that this idea is not quite correct – part of the information in our universe is contained in space itself.

This extra information is required to describe that other dark component of the universe: Dark energy, which is believed to be responsible for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Investigating the effects of this additional information on ordinary matter, Verlinde comes to a stunning conclusion. Whereas ordinary gravity can be encoded using the information on the imaginary sphere around the universe, as he showed in his 2010 work, the result of the additional information in the bulk of space is a force that nicely matches that attributed to dark matter.

On the brink of a scientific revolution

Gravity is in dire need of new approaches like the one by Verlinde, since it doesn’t combine well with quantum physics. Both theories, crown jewels of 20th century physics, cannot be true at the same time. The problems arise in extreme conditions: near black holes, or during the Big Bang. Verlinde says, “Many theoretical physicists like me are working on a revision of the theory, and some major advancements have been made. We might be standing on the brink of a new scientific revolution that will radically change our views on the very nature of space, time and gravity.”

Realistic Solar Corona Loops Simulated In Lab

Caltech applied physicists have experimentally simulated the Sun’s magnetic fields to create a realistic coronal loop in a lab.

solar-loop

Coronal loops are arches of plasma that erupt from the surface of the Sun following along magnetic field lines. Because plasma is an ionized gas—that is, a gas of free-flowing electrons and ions—it is an excellent conductor of electricity. As such, solar corona loops are guided and shaped by the Sun’s magnetic field.

The Earth’s magnetic field acts as a shield that protects humans from the strong X-rays and energized particles emitted by the eruptions, but communications satellites orbit outside this shield field and therefore remain vulnerable. In March 1989, a particularly large flare unleashed a blast of charged particles that temporarily knocked out one of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s geostationary operational environmental satellites that monitor the earth’s weather; caused a sensor problem on the space shuttle Discovery; and tripped circuit breakers on Hydro-Québec’s power grid, which caused a major blackout in the province of Quebec, Canada, for nine hours.

“This potential for causing havoc—which only increases the more humanity relies on satellites for communications, weather forecasting, and keeping track of resources—makes understanding how these solar events work critically important,” says Paul Bellan, professor of applied physics in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science.

Although simulated coronal loops have been created in labs before, this latest attempt incorporated a magnetic strapping field that binds the loop to the Sun’s surface. Think of a strapping field like the metal hoops on the outside of a wooden barrel. While the slats of the barrel are continually under pressure pushing outward, the metal hoops sit perpendicularly to the slats and hold the barrel together.

The strength of this strapping field diminishes with distance from the Sun. This means that when close to the solar surface, the loops are clamped down tightly by the strapping field but then can break loose and blast away if they rise to a certain altitude where the strapping field is weaker. These eruptions are known as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).

CMEs are rope-like discharges of hot plasma that accelerate away from the Sun’s surface at speeds of more than a million miles per hour. These eruptions are capable of releasing energy equivalent to 1 billion megatons of TNT, making them potentially the most powerful explosions in the solar system. (CMEs are not to be confused with solar flares, which often occur as part of the same event. Solar flares are bursts of light and energy, while CMEs are blasts of particles embedded in a magnetic field.)

The simulated loops and strapping fields provide new insight into how energy is stored in the solar corona and then released suddenly. Bellan worked with Caltech graduate student Bao Ha (MS ’10, PhD ’16) to create the strapping field and coronal loop. The results of their experiments were published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters on September 17, 2016.

Bellan and his colleagues have been working on laboratory-scale simulations of solar corona phenomena for two decades. In the lab, the team generates ropes of plasma in a 1.5-meter-long vacuum chamber.

“Studying coronal mass ejections is challenging, since humans do not know how and when the Sun will erupt. But laboratory experiments permit the control of eruption parameters and enable the systematic explorations of eruption dynamics,” says Ha, lead author of the GRL paper. “While experiments with the same eruption parameters are easily reproducible, the loop dynamics vary depending on the configuration of the strapping magnetic field.”

Simulating a strapping field with strength that fades over the relatively short length of the vacuum chamber proved difficult, Bellan says. In order to make it work, Ha and Bellan had to engineer electromagnetic coils that produce the strapping field inside the chamber itself.

After more than three years of design, fabrication, and testing, Bellan and Ha were able to create a strapping field that peaks in strength about 10 centimeters away from where the plasma loop forms, then dies off a short distance farther down the vacuum chamber.

The arrangement allows Bellan and Ha to watch the plasma loop slowly grow in size, then reach a critical point and fire off to the far end of the chamber.

Next, Bellan plans to measure the magnetic field inside the erupting loop and also study the waves that are emitted when plasmas break apart.

Russian Scientists Use Cosmic Rays to Forecast Hurricanes

Scientists from the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) appear to have found a way to better predict hurricanes by measuring changes in the atmosphere which precede giant atmospheric vortexes with air pressure subsiding to the center with very high speed of the airflow.

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This can now be done with the use of a ‘muon hodoscope’. Muons are a byproduct of cosmic rays particles. A hodoscope is a type of detector commonly used in particle physics that make use of an array of detectors to determine the trajectory of an energetic particle – in this case cosmic rays.

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Lead researcher Professor Igor Yashin of Moscow Engineering Physics Institute states: “The hurricane muon hodoscope is able to observe and analyze – on a real-time basis, modulations of the flow of secondary cosmic rays on the Earth’s surface provoked by processes in the heliosphere, magnetosphere and atmosphere of Earth. The uniqueness of our hodoscope is that in the real-time mode, it allows reconstruction of each muon’s track and obtaining muonographs.

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It is hard to overstate the necessity of precise hurricane forecasting. Before artificial satellites, the only way to track hurricanes was via airplanes flying above the cyclones. But even today, satellites can’t provide comprehensive information. For example, they can’t detect the inner barometric pressure of the hurricane or the exact wind speed. Moreover, thick clouds obscure nascent cyclones from satellites. Despite the availability of satellite systems, sensors, and radars, aviation still plays an important role in forecasting.

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According to scientists, the new hodoscope provides precise forecasts. To watch the atmosphere over Russia, which spans 10,625,447,387 miles (17.1 million km), the need for four hodoscopes are required. Considering that hurricanes are a fraction of that size, and the majority of tropical cyclones are formed between 10 and 30 degrees of latitude of both hemispheres, the number of hodoscope necessary to monitor this territory is low.

“Muon diagnostics developed at MEPhI offers the possibility to model the flow of cosmic rays in the atmosphere and magnetosphere. But to study such processes, it is necessary to create a network of similar, adjustable muon hodoscopes. Such hodoscopes were developed at MEPhI,” Yashin says.

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