Computer Models Find Ancient Solutions to Climate Change at Chaco Canyon

From the perspective of this writer, I am pleased to witness the sciences of ancient text, archaeology,  and anthropology connect the cycles of new with the cycles of old. Now, we might just get a better understanding and ‘preparedness’ for natural cyclical events such as that of warming and cooling trends the Earth has seen all her life.

Washington State University archaeologists are at the helm of new research using sophisticated computer technology to learn how past societies such as Chaco Canyon responded to climate change. Their work, which links ancient climate and archaeological data, could help modern communities identify new crops and other adaptive strategies when threatened by drought, extreme weather and other environmental challenges.

In a new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Jade d’Alpoim Guedes, assistant professor of anthropology, and WSU colleagues Stefani Crabtree, Kyle Bocinsky and Tim Kohler examine how recent advances in computational modeling are reshaping the field of archaeology.

“For every environmental calamity you can think of, there was very likely some society in human history that had to deal with it,” said Kohler, emeritus professor of anthropology at WSU. “Computational modeling gives us an unprecedented ability to identify what worked for these people and what didn’t.”

Kohler is a pioneer in the field of model-based archaeology. He developed sophisticated computer simulations, called agent-based models, of the interactions between ancestral peoples in the American Southwest and their environment.

WSU researchers also used crop-niche modeling to identify a viable alternative food source on the Tibetan Plateau. Rapidly rising temperatures make it difficult for the region’s inhabitants to grow cold weather crops and raise and breed yaks, a staple form of subsistence.

He launched the Village Ecodynamics Project in 2001 to simulate how virtual Pueblo Indian families, living on computer-generated and geographically accurate landscapes, likely would have responded to changes in specific variables like precipitation, population size and resource depletion.

By comparing the results of agent-based models against real archaeological evidence, anthropologists can identify past conditions and circumstances that led different civilizations around the world into periods of growth and decline.

Agent-based modeling is also used to explore the impact humans can have on their environment during periods of climate change.

One study mentioned in the WSU review demonstrates how drought, hunting and habitat competition among growing populations in Egypt led to the extinction of many large-bodied mammals around 3,000 B.C. In addition, d’Alpoim Guedes and Bocinsky, an adjunct faculty member in anthropology, are investigating how settlement patterns in Tibet are affecting erosion.

Species distribution or crop-niche modeling is another sophisticated technology that archaeologists use to predict where plants and other organisms grew well in the past and where they might be useful today.

Bocinsky and d’Alpoim Guedes are using the modeling technique to identify little-used or in some cases completely forgotten crops that could be useful in areas where warmer weather, drought and disease impact food supply.

One of the crops they identified is a strain of drought-tolerant corn the Hopi Indians of Arizona adapted over the centuries to prosper in poor soil. “Our models showed Hopi corn could grow well in the Ethiopian highlands where one of their staple foods, the Ethiopian banana, has been afflicted by emerging pests, disease and blasts of intense heat,” Bocinsky said. “Cultivating Hopi corn and other traditional, drought-resistant crops could become crucial for human survival in other places impacted by climate change.”

WSU researchers also used crop-niche modeling to identify a viable alternative food source on the Tibetan Plateau. Rapidly rising temperatures make it difficult for the region’s inhabitants to grow cold weather crops and raise and breed yaks, a staple form of subsistence.

In a paper published in 2015, d’Alpoim Guedes and Bocinsky found that foxtail and proso millet, which fell out of cultivation on the Plateau 4,000 years ago as the climate got colder, could soon be grown there again as the climate warms up.

“These millets are on the verge of becoming forgotten crops,” d’Alpoim Guedes said. “But due to their heat tolerance and high nutritional value, and very low rainfall requirements, they may once again be useful resources for a warmer future.”

With hundreds of years of anthropological data from sites around the world yet to be digitized, scientists are just beginning to tap the potential of archaeology-based modeling.

“The field is in the midst of a renaissance toward more computational approaches,” Kohler said. “Our hope is that combining traditional archaeology fieldwork with data-driven modeling techniques will help us more knowledgeably manage our numbers, our ecosystem interactions and avoid past errors regarding climate change.”

BREAKING NEWS: More Signs Of Coming Pole Shift

A moving viscous flow within the Earth’s molten iron core has been discovered by scientists using the latest satellite data that helps create an ‘x-ray’ view of the planet.

Lead researcher Dr Phil Livermore, from the University of Leeds, said: “The European Space Agency’s Swarm satellites are providing our sharpest x-ray image yet of the Earth’s outer core. We’ve not only seen this moving flow clearly for the first time, but we understand why it’s there.”

“We can explain it as an accelerating band of molten iron circling the North Pole, like the moving stream in the atmosphere,” said Dr Livermore, from the School of Earth and Environment at Leeds.

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Because of the outer core’s remote location under 3,000 kilometers of rock, for many years scientists have studied the Earth’s outer and inner core by measuring the planet’s magnetic field – one of the few options available.

Previous research had found that changes in the magnetic field indicated that iron in the outer core was moving faster in the northern hemisphere, mostly under Alaska and Siberia. But new data from the Swarm satellites has revealed these changes are actually caused by a moving flow moving at more than 40 kilometers per year. This is three times faster than typical outer core speeds and hundreds of thousands of times faster than the speed at which the Earth’s tectonic plates move.

The European Space Agency’s Swarm mission features a trio of satellites which simultaneously measure and untangle the different magnetic signals which stem from Earth’s outer and inner core, mantle, crust, oceans, ionosphere and magnetosphere. They have provided the clearest information yet about the magnetic field created in the core.

The study, published today in Nature Geoscience, found the position of the moving flow aligns with a boundary between two different regions in the outer core. The jet is likely to be caused by liquid in the core moving towards this boundary from both sides, which is squeezed out sideways.

Co-author Professor Rainer Hollerbach, from the School of Mathematics at Leeds, said: “Of course, you need a force to move the liquid towards the boundary. This could be provided by buoyancy, or perhaps more likely from changes in the magnetic field within the outer core.”

Rune Floberghagen, ESA’s Swarm mission manager, said: “Further surprises are likely. The magnetic field is forever changing, and this could even make the moving flow switch direction.

“This feature is one of the first deep-Earth discoveries made possible by Swarm. With the unprecedented resolution now possible, it’s a very exciting time – we simply don’t know what we’ll discover next about our planet.”

Co-author Dr Chris Finlay, from the Technical University of Denmark said: “We know more about the Sun than the Earth’s core. The discovery of this jet is an exciting step in learning more about our planet’s inner workings.”

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Large 7.9 Quake Near Papua New Guinea Sets Off Tsunami

A powerful earthquake struck off the coast of Papua New Guinea, generating a small tsunami and knocking out power in parts of the Pacific island nation. There were no immediate reports of injuries or damage.

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The magnitude-7.9 quake struck 46 kilometers (29 miles) east of Taron in Papua New Guinea, the U.S. Geological Survey said. The quake was deep, at 103 kilometers (61 miles). Deeper earthquakes tend to cause less damage than shallow ones.

The USGS initially said the quake’s magnitude was 8.0, but later downgraded the strength.

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said there was a threat of a tsunami in Papua New Guinea and nearby areas. It said tsunami waves reaching 1-3 meters (yards) high were possible along the coasts of Papua New Guinea, while waves in other areas, including the Solomon Islands, would likely be less than 0.3 meter (1 foot) high.

A tsunami measuring less than 1 meter (3 feet) hit the coast of the island of New Ireland shortly after the earthquake, said Felix Taranu, seismologist with the Geophysical Observatory in the capital, Port Moresby. There were no immediate reports of damage from the tsunami or the quake, though officials were still working to contact people on the island, he said.

The quake knocked items off shelves and caused a blackout in the town of Kokopo in northeastern Papua New Guinea, Taranu said. But there were no reports of widespread damage in the town.

(PART III) Magnetic Pole Reversal Coming Sooner Than You Think

According to scientists’ best estimates, the Earth’s magnetic field is now weakening around 10 times faster than previously predicted, losing approximately 5% of its strength every decade. This finding indicates a magnetic pole reversal could be coming sooner rather than later.

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 The geomagnetic dipole has decreased by nearly 6% per century since first measured by Gauss in the 1840s. This too is 10-20 times faster than the “Ohmic” decay rate. (The process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor releases heat). The causes of this rapid decrease in Gauss stability, is the proliferation of reverse magnetic field on the core-mantle boundary. This has occurred especially beneath the South Atlantic with the transference of heat energy in a horizontal stream of the magnetic field from high to low latitudes.

The weakening of Earth’s magnetic field has two fundamental points. First: A weakened magnetic field allows charged particle events such as galactic cosmic rays, gamma rays, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections (CME), to produce enhanced consequences to extreme weather events that include earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes etc.

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Second: The second major consequence of a weakened magnetic field is its identification as the ‘precursor’ to a magnetic pole shift. It is estimated that Earth’s magnetic field reverses every few thousand years at low latitudes and every 10,000 years at high latitudes. It is believed we are far enough along the cycle that many living today will witness the bouncing back and forth of magnetic north and it swings reaching latitudes below 30°. Magnetic north can also move east and west longitudes.

Precursor First – Then Full Magnetic Flip
Individual magnetic reversal records show a remarkable degree of repeatability, including dipole collapse, rapid polarity change, and fast dipole intensity recovery stages. This is to say historical magnetic field reversals indicate that during the period of Earth’s magnetic field reduction, it will be in flux for several years before a full magnetic flip will incur. At this stage of magnetic minimization close to zero point, the magnetic field may have multiple swings north and south across the equator, additionally with large excursions of geomagnetic polar flux in east and west longitudes.

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The final stage of reversal is when the dipole intensity partially recovers. An example of this phenomena would be magnetic north suddenly dropping down to at or below the equator, then rapidly snapping back to say and briefly exceeds the surface non-dipole intensity, which in turn is followed by a very rapid dipole intensity collapse, final reversal, and recovery of the dipole intensity in the new polarity position. The final latitudes and longitude positions are unknown. However, historical records indicate north will be south – and south will be north – but at what degrees North-South-East-West is anyone’s guess.

When the poles flip, having a compass that points South instead of North does not seem like too big of a deal to humans, but there is a question of what will happen other animals. Certain migratory animals like sea turtles and birds use the magnetic field in order to orient themselves. A reversal of the poles could interfere with their ability to do so.

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Another concern about the reversal is that the weakening of the magnetic field, which precedes the flipping event, will mean that it will not be able to adequately shield us from the Sun’s radiation. Although there is no direct evidence in the fossil record of a “mass” extinction correlating with a field reversal or an influx of radiation, records show there have been selective extinctions. Additionally, there is concern of what could happen to power grids, satellites and effects on weather patterns.

The question is not ‘will there be a magnetic pole reversal’, but at what phase are we currently in? I would suggest we are in the last phases. There are many of you who will be able to witness a magnetic reversal firsthand, what transpires over the next 50 to 60 years. Unfortunately, I will not be one of them but my kids will be; and they have been instructed to take good notes and photos to pass on to their kids.

All ‘Original Seven’ American Astronauts Now Dead

John Glenn’s passing on Thursday Dec. 8th 2016 means that the first seven American astronauts chosen to lead the fledgling US space program in 1959 are now dead, ending a groundbreaking chapter in American history.

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This crew of military aviators, known as the Original Seven, or “Mercury 7,” proved that spaceflight was possible, and paved the way for the pioneering US trips to the moon. Their saga inspired the 1979 Tom Wolfe book “The Right Stuff,” and the 1983 movie classic of the same name. Here are the feats the seven are best known for, and how they died:

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Alan B. Shepard,
The first American to journey into space, Shepard launched on May 5, 1961, aboard the Freedom 7 spacecraft. His flight was suborbital, rising to an altitude of 116 statute miles (186 kilometers) before landing back on Earth. He later commanded the Apollo 14 in 1971—the third lunar landing – and became the fifth person to walk on the Moon. Shepard died in 1998 at the age of 74 from leukemia.

John H. Glenn,
The first American to orbit the Earth, Glenn is best known for making his three tours around the planet on February 20, 1962.
He was also elected US senator in Ohio and served as a lawmaker from 1974 to 1999. In 1998, at the age of 77, Glenn became the oldest person to fly in space when he journeyed aboard the space shuttle Discovery. Glenn died Thursday at the age of 95. He had been in declining health since undergoing heart valve surgery in 2014.

Virgil ‘Gus’ Grissom
Grissom was the first person to be launched into space twice. He flew on the second suborbital Mercury flight in 1961, and in 1965 piloted the first Gemini mission, which was also the first spaceflight to change its orbital plane. He and two others were killed in 1967 in a fire during a launch pad test ahead of the planned Apollo 1 mission, which he was slated to command.

Scott Carpenter
Carpenter radioed the now famous phrase, “Godspeed, John Glenn” as his colleague was about to embark on the first US orbital flight in 1962. Later that year, Carpenter became the second American to orbit the Earth. After circling the Earth three times in the Aurora 7 capsule, he overshot his landing target by about 250 miles (400 kilometers). Carpenter took a leave of absence from NASA and served as an aquanaut in the Navy’s Man-in-the-Sea program in 1965. He died in 2013 at the age of 88 after suffering a stroke.

Gordon Cooper,
In 1963, Cooper flew on the final Mercury mission and became the last US astronaut to fly alone in space. His Faith 7 capsule circled the Earth 22 times and the mission lasted more than a day. His second trip to space – aboard Gemini 5 in 1965 – lasted eight days and set a new space endurance record for that era. Cooper was said to be the first American to sleep in space. He reported having no dreams during his orbital slumber. He died in 2004 of heart failure at the age of 77.

Walter M. Schirra,
Schirra became the first man to fly aboard all three of the United States’ first three human space projects – the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo missions. He was command pilot on Gemini 6 in 1965 when he led the first spacecraft rendezvous by flying within one foot of the already orbiting Gemini 7. He also commanded the first piloted Apollo mission, Apollo 7, in 1968. Schirra died of a heart attack while being treated for abdominal cancer in 2007 at the age of 84.

Donald ‘Deke’ Slayton
Slayton was chosen to be part of the original Mercury missions but was unable to fly in 1962 because of an erratic heart rate. He became NASA’s director of Flight Crew Operations, and was eventually cleared for spaceflight a decade later. In 1975, he flew aboard the first joint American-Soviet space mission, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, which marked the first docking of an American and Russian spacecraft in space. Slayton died of a brain tumor in 1993, at the age of 69.

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BREAKING NEWS: New Study Shows Counter-Intuitive Finding Of Warming and Cooling Cycles in Earth’s Thermosphere  (PART I  of  II)

New discoveries have reversed scientific templates and formulas which were used for decades by climatologists, astrophysicists, cosmologists and other disciplines to understand the Earth – Sun connection which includes space weather and climate change. It was historically believed the Sun’s solar cycle was in harmony with the fluctuation of heating and cooling of the Mesosphere and Thermosphere.

This is to say, during solar maximum it was believed the solar radiation was creating super-heated hydrogen and oxygen atoms and thus generating a super-heated Meso/Thermosphere. In like, it was believed solar minimum would spawn the cooling of H and O atoms thus cooling this region.

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Scientists using the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) satellite, have upended the above universally accepted theory highlighting a second ‘counter-intuitive’ platform of the Sun-Earth connection as it related to climate, a more accurate statement would be (as it relates to cyclical warming and cooling trends.)  I mention the “second” counter-intuitive’ concept with the “first” being my published research identifying the natural cyclical inter-working of the Earth’s inner core, outer core, mantle, and lithosphere.

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The TIMED satellite (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) primary science objective of the TIMED mission is to understand the energy transfer into and out of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere/Ionosphere region of Earth’s atmosphere. This region is located approximately 40-110 miles (60-180 kilometers) above the surface and is a gateway between Earth’s environment and space, where the Sun’s energy is first deposited into Earth’s environment.

To put in the most simple, yet scientifically sound foundation and absolutely amazing term – “so it is above – as it is below”.

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Important Editors Statement: Folks, Mitch here telling you this new discovery is putting me at another level of understanding and yet ironically creates a bit of consternation as to the astonishing accuracy of my research. As a background to my current moment of conflict, I have personally interviewed the most brilliant scientists in the world. I have produced “on the record” in-depth discussions publicly recorded and published – and I have had “off the record” discussions of which I cannot disclose due to the sensitive nature of their positions. What I am reflecting upon is once again the brilliance of these minds of which I humbly say are far beyond my own – yet for some known, but mostly unknown reason, they could not see what I see. Part of that answer is the compartmentalizing of their focused discipline, their academic and agency directive, the drive to push their selected field of research one step beyond the known.

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I have published two books both of which are telling of the knowledge I have acquired from such people who just happen to be gifted scientists. It is also no secret they come from the highest established agencies such as NASA, NOAA, ESA, US Naval Observatory, Royal Observatory to name a few. Also from the greatest educational establishments such a USC, UCLA, Harvard, Johns Hopkins to name a few more.

COMING NEXT WEEK – First Counter-Intuitive Concept
(Part – II) The Cause of Heating and Cooling Cycles of Earth’s Core and Climate Change


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BREAKING NEWS – IPCC Finally Relents to Other Reasons for Global Warming Trends

I am completing my article on new findings (which are not new) which have directed the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to shift their direction and now allowing other scientific disciplines into their Assessment Report.

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Just a brief teaser for now – new studies of the interaction of ocean currents, mantle plumes, and carbon sources tell a very different story which does not support the 1988 made up name ‘global warming’. In short, my research and that of others maintains there is, and has always been, warming and cooling trends on Earth. It is the “cause” which should have been the focus of these cyclical events. Furthermore, the cause might even be secondary (or at least simultaneous) to PREPAREDNESS. I say preparedness because most sources of cause goes beyond “prevention”.

Article Coming This Weekend….

 

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Thanks to you who have pitched in. News is popping and we plan to be here with our ability to highlight and navigate in a way you can understand – then further your ability to discern how these new scientific discoveries can have a ‘real-time’ effect in our lives.   Cheers, Mitch

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