Interplay of Magnetic Fields and Gravitation in Star Development

Space bears witness to a constant stream of star births. Whole star clusters are often formed at the same time – and within a comparatively short period. Amelia Stutz and Andrew Gould from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg have proposed a new mechanism to explain this quick formation.

cycle of the universe7

Star formation is basically a simple process: You take a very cold cloud consisting of hydrogen gas and a sprinkling of dust and leave the system to get on with it. Then, within the space of a few million years, the sufficiently cold regions will collapse under their own gravity and form new stars.

Reality is a bit more complicated. A particular feature is that there seem to be two types of star formation. In conventional, smaller molecular clouds, only one or a few stars form – until the gas has dispersed over a period of three million years or so. Larger clouds survive around ten times longer. Whole star clusters are born simultaneously in these clouds and very massive Suns are formed.

cycle of the universe6

Why is it that so many stars are created during these approximately 30 million years? In astronomical terms, this period is quite short. Most attempts at an explanation are based on a kind of chain reaction in which the formation of the first stars in the cloud triggers the formation of further stars. Supernova explosions of the most massive (and therefore shortest-lived) stars which have just formed could be one explanation, as their shock waves compress the cloud material and thus create the seeds for new stars.

cycle of the universe8

Amelia Stutz and Andrew Gould from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg are pursuing a different approach and bringing gravity and magnetic fields into play. To test their idea, they undertook a detailed investigation of the Orion nebula, 1300 light years away. The bright red gas cloud with the complex pattern is one of the best-known celestial objects.

The starting point for Stutz and Gould’s considerations are maps of the mass distribution in a structure known as an “integral-shaped filament” because of its form – it resembles that of a curved integral sign – and which includes the Orion nebula in the central section of the filament.

cycle of the universe5

The Heidelberg-based researchers also drew on studies of the magnetic fields in and around this object.

The data show that magnetic fields and gravitation have approximately the same effect on the filament. Taking this as their basis, the two astronomers developed a scenario in which the filament is a flexible structure undulating to and fro. The usual models of star formation, on the other hand, are based on gas clouds which collapse under their own gravitation.

Important proof for the new idea is the distribution of protostars and infant Suns in and around the filament. Protostars are the precursors of Suns: they contract even further until their nuclei have reached densities and temperatures which are high enough for nuclear fusion reactions to start in a big way. This is the point at which a star is born.

Protostars are light enough to be dragged along when the filament undulates backwards and forwards. Infant stars, in contrast, are much more compact and are simply left behind by the filament or launched into the surrounding space as if fired from a slingshot. The model can thus explain what the observation data actually show: protostars are to be found only along the dense spine of the filament; infant stars, on the other hand, are found mainly outside the filament.

This scenario has the potential for a new mechanism which could explain the formation of whole star clusters on (in astronomical terms) short timescales. The observed positions of the star clusters suggest that the integral-shaped filament originally extended much further towards the north than it does today. Over millions of years, one star cluster after another seems to have formed, starting from the north. And each finished star cluster has scattered the gas-dust mixture surrounding it as time has passed.

This is why we now see three star clusters in and around the filament: the oldest cluster is furthest away from the northern tip of the filament; the second one is closer and is still surrounded by filament remnants; the third one, in the center of the integral-shaped filament, is just in the process of growing.

The interaction of magnetic fields and gravity allows certain types of instabilities, some of which are familiar from plasma physics, and which could lead to the formation of one star cluster after another. This hypothesis is based on observational data for the integral-shaped filament. It is not a mature model for a new mode of star formation, however. Theoreticians have first to carry out appropriate simulations and astronomers have to make further observations.

Only when this preparatory work is complete will it be clear whether the molecular cloud in Orion represents a special case. Or whether the birth of star clusters in a medley of magnetically trapped filaments is the usual route to forming whole clusters of new stars in space within a short period.

BREAKING NEWS: New Study Shows Mantle Plume Movement Occurs More Rapidly Affecting Oceans and Climate

Still more confirmation of Battros 2012 equation identifying mantle plumes role in Earth’s core convection process. This new study also confirms mantle’s effect on ocean warming and specifically “ice caps.” This throws a hefty monkey-wrench into advocates of the 1988 made-up name global warming. I will attach my previous articles highlighting the connection to cyclical events occurring in our backyard “Milky Way” and our neighboring galaxies.

equation-mantle plumes

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles → Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

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Researchers have compiled the first global set of observations of the movement of the Earth’s mantle, the 3000-kilometer thick layer of hot silicate rocks between the crust and the core, and have found that it looks very different to predictions made by geologists over the past 30  a years.

galaxy-sun-earth3_m

The team, from the University of Cambridge, used more than 2000 measurements taken from the world’s oceans in order to peer beneath the Earth’s crust and observe the chaotic nature of mantle flow. These movements have a huge influence on the way Earth looks today related to mountain formation, volcanic activity and earthquakes.

inside earth1

The result of this new research is now published in the journal Nature Geoscience. Significant ramifications across many disciplines including the study of oceanic circulation and past climate change are now made manifest creating a bit of a shake-up in the global warming world.

The inventory of more than 2000 spot observations was determined by analyzing seismic surveys of the world’s oceans. By examining variations in the depth of the ocean floor, the researchers were able to construct a global database of the mantle’s movements.

subsea-volcanoes-110712-02

“These results will have wider reaching implications,” said Hoggard. “Considering the surface is moving much faster than we had previously thought, it could also affect things like the stability of ice caps and help us to understand past climate change.”

__________________________

Below are Recent Articles Reflecting
Battros Hypothesis Turned Theory

JUST IN: New High-Energy Sources of Gamma and Cosmic Rays Discovered

JUST IN: New Maps Chart Mantle Plumes Melting Greenland Glaciers

JUST IN: Scientists Beginning to Identify Signs That  Galactic Cycles are Analogous with Sun-Earth’s Circumvolution

BREAKING NEWS: Powerful Acquiescence of Battros ‘Equation’ in New Discovery – Charged Particle Acceleration

UPDATE: New Sources of Charged Particles Discovered

BREAKING NEWS: A Dramatic Galactic Explosion Arrived at Earth in 2012

_________________

_science-of-cycles33

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BREAKING NEWS: New Study Shows Mantle Plume Movement Occurs More Rapidly Affecting Oceans and Climate

Still more confirmation of Battros 2012 equation identifying mantle plumes role in Earth’s core convection process. This new study also confirms mantle’s effect on ocean warming and specifically “ice caps.” This throws a hefty monkey-wrench into advocates of the 1988 made-up name global warming. I will attach my previous articles highlighting the connection to cyclical events occurring in our backyard “Milky Way” and our neighboring galaxies.

equation-mantle plumes

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles → Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

Mitch Battros and “Science of Cycles” Research Sponsorship Fundraiser
– Be part of keeping ‘Science of Cycles’ alive and free. – Your support is needed to keep this unique and valuable resource.
– Help sponsor us with your pledge as you see fit to the value you receive.     
– CLICK HERE –

Researchers have compiled the first global set of observations of the movement of the Earth’s mantle, the 3000-kilometer thick layer of hot silicate rocks between the crust and the core, and have found that it looks very different to predictions made by geologists over the past 30  a years.

galaxy-sun-earth3_m

The team, from the University of Cambridge, used more than 2000 measurements taken from the world’s oceans in order to peer beneath the Earth’s crust and observe the chaotic nature of mantle flow. These movements have a huge influence on the way Earth looks today related to mountain formation, volcanic activity and earthquakes.

inside earth1

The result of this new research is now published in the journal Nature Geoscience. Significant ramifications across many disciplines including the study of oceanic circulation and past climate change are now made manifest creating a bit of a shake-up in the global warming world.

The inventory of more than 2000 spot observations was determined by analyzing seismic surveys of the world’s oceans. By examining variations in the depth of the ocean floor, the researchers were able to construct a global database of the mantle’s movements.

subsea-volcanoes-110712-02

“These results will have wider reaching implications,” said Hoggard. “Considering the surface is moving much faster than we had previously thought, it could also affect things like the stability of ice caps and help us to understand past climate change.”

__________________________

Below are Recent Articles Reflecting
Battros Hypothesis Turned Theory

JUST IN: New High-Energy Sources of Gamma and Cosmic Rays Discovered

JUST IN: New Maps Chart Mantle Plumes Melting Greenland Glaciers

JUST IN: Scientists Beginning to Identify Signs That  Galactic Cycles are Analogous with Sun-Earth’s Circumvolution

BREAKING NEWS: Powerful Acquiescence of Battros ‘Equation’ in New Discovery – Charged Particle Acceleration

UPDATE: New Sources of Charged Particles Discovered

BREAKING NEWS: A Dramatic Galactic Explosion Arrived at Earth in 2012

_________________

_science-of-cycles33

Mitch Battros and Science of Cycles Research Sponsorship Fundraiser – Be part of keeping ‘Science of Cycles’ alive and free. – Your support is needed to keep this unique and valuable resource. Help sponsor us with your pledge as you see fit to the value you receive.

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(NEW) Scientists Detect Unexpected Drop in the Magnetic Field of X-Ray Pulsar

A team of scientists has recently presented evidence of an unexpected drop in the observed magnetic field of an accreting pulsar designated V0332+53. This downturn, observed after the pulsar underwent a bright, three-month-long X-ray outburst, could yield important information on how the accreted mass settling on the surface of a neutron star affects its magnetic field. The findings are detailed in a paper published online on Apr. 26 in the arXiv journal.

pulsargraphic

V0332+53 is an accreting pulsar emitting X-ray radiation, with a spin period of 4.4 seconds. It orbits an early type companion star in an eccentric orbit of about 34 days. Significantly, this pulsar shows sporadic giant X-ray outbursts lasting several weeks, followed by years-long intervals of dormancy.

These X-ray outburst were observed in 1989, between November 2004 and February 2005, and between June and September 2015. The latest outburst drew the attention of a team of researchers, led by Giancarlo Cusumano of the Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics in Palermo, Italy. Using the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT), both mounted on NASA’s Swift spacecraft, the astronomers were able to observe the pulsar in soft X-ray and high-energy bands.

pulsar_radiation2

By studying the results, the team detected a noteworthy drop in the observed magnetic field between the onset and the end of the outburst.

“The comparison of the XRT profiles in the soft X-rays provides a hint against the hypothesis of a geometrical beam variation. If, on the other hand, the line-forming region is the same at equal luminosities, the observed difference in the cyclotron energy corresponds to a difference in the magnetic field of about 1.7 ×1011 G,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

proto-star_m

The findings could be crucial for our understanding of matter accretion processes in neutron stars and could provide new insights on pulsars’ X-ray outburst events. According to the research, the magnetic field of neutron star drives the accreting matter along its field lines towards the magnetic polar caps, forming an accretion column, where matter is followed up by radiative processes that produce X-rays.

Notably, the drop in the magnetic field, as described in the latest paper, wasn’t observed after previous outbursts. The researchers found out that although the total mass accreted at the end of the 2004-2005 and the 2015 outburst is similar, during the 2004-2005 event, a higher luminosity was reached earlier. They also concluded that decay of the magnetic field is not directly proportional to the total accreted mass.

pulsar_radiation4

Moreover, the scientists hypothesize that the cause of the significant decay of the magnetic field through accretion observed at V0332+53 could be due to “diamagnetic screening.”

“In this hypothesis, the accreting plasma builds up to form a magnetically confined mound, where the gas pressure balances the magnetic stresses. This would produce, as an overall effect, a distortion of the field lines observed as a decrease of the field component along the accretion column,” the paper reads.

However, as the team noted, the lack of coverage in the first ten days of the outburst doesn’t allow them to confirm this theory.

BREAKING NEWS: Powerful Acquiescence of Battros ‘Equation’ in New Discovery – Charged Particle Acceleration

Mitch_and_Crew_medd

“If talking about fronts and shock-waves and temperature differentials, it sounds a lot like the weather on Earth, that’s because there is not much difference as far as the physics involved. “Technically, we observe the same features in space that we do on Earth,” says Dasadia Sarthak, lead author of this new research and published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. “This area has been studied extensively before at small scales, but few had done the work to discover what I found here at such big scales.”

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles and Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

new_equation 2012_m

Already, scientists are targeting shock-waves in galaxy clusters to study dark matter, the magnetic field surrounding the cluster, charged particle acceleration and energy transfer in the intra-cluster medium. “This could open a door, where people can do a number of different studies based on what I have found,” says Dasadia Sarthak, from the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH).

abell 665

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The discovery occurred in the merging galaxy cluster ‘Abell 655 by using observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. It is the second-strongest merging shock-wave within a galaxy cluster ever observed generating excitement that is opening doors to further scientific exploration.

Chandra_X-ray_Observatory

This uncommon form of hot plasma discharge ejecting waves of charged particles provides unique opportunities to study this high-energy phenomena in the intra-cluster medium between galaxies.

In only 10 days, Dasadia’s research was accepted for publication by The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Dasadia recently received one year of research support from the Alabama EPSCoR Graduate Research Scholars Program (ALEPSCoR). He also gave an oral presentation on his research in August at the International Astronomical Union (IAU) General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii.

undefined clusters4

The universe is populated with galaxy clusters that are relaxed and unrelaxed, Dasadia says. The relaxed ones are mellow — they’ve been around a lot longer, have seen lots of past mergers and really aren’t dynamically active. It’s the unrelaxed clusters like Abell 665 that are good candidates to study merger features such as shocks and turbulence.

When the undefined boundaries of massive clusters of galaxies 3 million light-years across are drawn together in a slow-motion collision, their cold cores and surrounding hot gases are disrupted into shock waves and gas fronts of various temperatures.

undefined clusters2

“When two cold cores collide, they may create a shock of heated gas,” Dasadia says. “Such mergers are actually among the most energetic events in the universe, other than the Big Bang itself.”

Mitch Battros and Science of Cycles Research Sponsorship Fundraiser – Be part of keeping ‘Science of Cycles’ alive and free. Your support is needed to keep this unique and valuable resource. Help sponsor us with your pledge as you see fit to the value you receive.    – CLICK HERE –

If talking about fronts and shock waves and temperature differentials sounds a lot like the weather on Earth, Dasadia says that’s because there is not much difference as far as the physics involved.

“Technically, we observe the same features in space that we do on Earth,” he says. “This area has been studied extensively before at small scales, but few had done the work to discover what I found here at such big scales.”

“It amazes me how long it takes for this information to even reach the Earth,” Dasadia says. “Then I am also amazed by our technology, by how much we have advanced in developing the telescopes and equipment it takes to be able to observe and study these interactions.”

_science of cycles33

Mitch Battros and Science of Cycles Research Sponsorship Fundraiser – Be part of keeping ‘Science of Cycles’ alive and free. Your support is needed to keep this unique and valuable resource. Help sponsor us with your pledge as you see fit to the value you receive.

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ASKAP Test Finds “Monster” Black Hole

Imagine trying on new pair of spectacles and when glancing around to test them you spot a monster—that’s exactly what happened when the ASKAP antennas were turned towards a group of three merging galaxies 1.8 billion light years away.

askaptestfin

The monster concerned is a supermassive black hole with a mass 3 billion times that of the Sun.

All galaxies are believed to house a huge black hole at their centre, but this one is gigantic by cosmic standards.

It is 750 times bigger than the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way—which is a modest 4 million solar masses.

Black holes grow by drawing in material including other black holes that venture too close, and in this case the black holes from the three galaxies have merged.

Dr Lisa Harvey-Smith from CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science and her team knew of a strong source of radiowaves, known as an astrophysical maser, in the group and pointed the array of antennas toward it.

The results were checked by the Australia Telescope Compact Array telescope at Narrabri which found the gas forming the maser was moving at around 600 kilometres per second, or around 500 times the speed of a rifle cartridge.

Knowing the speed of the gas they were able to directly measure the mass of the black hole that was causing the gas to swirl.

1-askaptestfin

ASKAP (the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder) is the precursor to the Square Kilometer Array and is being built in the Murchison.

When finished ASKAP will have 36 identical antennas, each 12m in diameter that will work together as a single instrument.

“The full 36 antennas will be online by 2018,” Dr Harvey-Smith says.

“We currently have nine antennas doing commissioning and testing, and our early science program will begin when we have 12 antennas ready.”

Dr George Heald who leads the CSIRO Astrophysics group in Perth says ASKAP’s advantage lies in sporting CSIRO’s own receiver technology called Phased Array Feed (PAF), which is like a digital camera for use in radio astronomy.

“It allows us to map a huge area of the sky a lot faster than by using a traditional radio telescope,” he says.

Perth team member Aidan Hotan says that most of the science planned for ASKAP has to do with understanding the structure and composition of the universe out to greater distances and over wider areas than ever before.

Second Strongest Shock Wave Found In Merging Galaxy Clusters

The discovery by a physics doctoral student at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) of the second-strongest merger shock in clusters of galaxies ever observed has generated excitement that is opening doors to further scientific exploration.
cluster
Sarthak Dasadia, who is advised by assistant physics professor Dr. Ming Sun, discovered the very strong shock in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 655 using observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

The shock to the north of this cluster is second in strength only to the Bullet Cluster shock.

The shock is traveling with an astonishing speed of 2,700 kilometers per second, about three times the local speed of sound in the cluster. By comparison, NASA’s Juno spacecraft in 2013 became the fastest human-made object when it was slingshot around Earth toward Jupiter at a relatively pedantic 40 kilometers a second.

“Studying mergers of galaxy clusters has proven to be crucial to our understanding of how such large scale objects form and evolve,” says Dasadia. Shocks provide unique opportunities to study high-energy phenomena in the intra-cluster medium — the hot plasma between galaxies.

“This could open a door, where people can do a number of different studies based on what I have found,” Dasadia says. Already, scientists are targeting shocks in galaxy clusters to study dark matter, the magnetic field in the intracluster space, particle acceleration and energy transfer in the intracluster medium.

In only 10 days, Dasadia’s research was accepted for publication by The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Dasadia recently received one year of research support from the Alabama EPSCoR Graduate Research Scholars Program (ALEPSCoR). He also gave an oral presentation on his research in August at the International Astronomical Union (IAU) General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii.

The universe is populated with galaxy clusters that are relaxed and unrelaxed, Dasadia says. The relaxed ones are mellow — they’ve been around a lot longer, have seen lots of past mergers and really aren’t dynamically active. It’s the unrelaxed clusters like Abell 665 that are good candidates to study merger features such as shocks and turbulence.

“These galaxy clusters are not boundary objects,” he says. “They do not have a very well-defined boundary around them.”

When the undefined boundaries of massive clusters of galaxies 3 million light-years across are drawn together in a slow-motion collision, their cold cores and surrounding hot gases are disrupted into shock waves and gas fronts of various temperatures.

“When two cold cores collide, they may create a shock of heated gas,” Dasadia says. “Such mergers are actually among the most energetic events in the universe, other than the Big Bang itself.”

If talking about fronts and shock waves and temperature differentials sounds lot like the weather on Earth, Dasadia says that’s because there is not much difference as far as the physics involved.

“Technically, we observe the same features in space that we do on Earth,” he says. “This area has been studied extensively before at small scales, but few had done the work to discover what I found here at such big scales.”

He was able to measure the velocity of the collision and the dynamics of what is happening in it — or rather, what was happening in it. It took 3.2 billion years for the light in the observations to reach Earth, so the events all happened that far back in time. Dynamic observations included the energy in the collision, the gas movement, and measurements of the discrepancy between the visible and dark matter involved.

“It amazes me how long it takes for this information to even reach the Earth,” Dasadia says. “Then I am also amazed by our technology, by how much we have advanced in developing the telescopes and equipment it takes to be able to observe and study these interactions.”