The Causal Effect Between Cosmic Rays – Geo-Physical and Bio-Psycho-Social Outcome

Here in Part-II, I will enhance the understanding of the causal effect between (charged particles) cosmic rays associated with a) geo-physical i.e. earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes etc. and  b) bio-psycho-social i.e. depression, disorientation, anxiety, and depression turned inward ‘rage’.

My research suggests during the period eclipse transition, which I surmise to have a process of expansion and contraction prior to and after its apex. In this case that would be Aug. 21 2017. As associated with transitional sequence, I suggest there are periods of significant cosmic ray fluctuation. This process would be in addition and co-occurring with periods of rapid temperature flux closest to the apex event.

In a coming article, I will explain the causal effects mostly related to geo-physical occurrences, which I expect to begin next week. Watch for my reports as they occur. In this article my focus remains on charged particles effect on humans and how this could be the basis for a presumed connection to civil unrest and war.

To best convey the connection between cosmic rays and humans is to present how medical procedures are being used today to treat an assortment of mental health diagnosis such as depression, ADD, bi-polar, anxiety, and ptsd. It has also been effective for dementia and other memory problems like concussions and (TBI) traumatic brain injury often associated with combat veterans from explosives.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) involves the use of a magnetic coil which produces a magnetic field and placing it against the scalp. Capacitors from the TMS machine pass electrical currents through the coils that create brief, pulsating magnetic fields that pass through the skull and create electric currents in the neurons or nerve cells of the brain. Charged particles created by the electromagnetic field releases natural brain chemistry in neurons and synaptic receptors.

The choice of stimulation parameters determines whether the effects of stimulation are excitatory or inhibitory. For example, two single pulses separated by less than 5 milliseconds can produce intracortical inhibition, while two single pulses separated by a gap greater than 10 and less than 30 milliseconds can produce intracortical facilitation.

This accounts for the reason some people may experience feelings of increased energy, hyperactive, or anxious during the duration of a powerful CME (coronal mass ejection) or large X-class solar flare – while others express feelings of depression, lethargy, or disoriented.

I hope this best explains how the fluctuation of charged particles in the way of cosmic rays (and solar rays) can have a direct causal effect on humans. Furthermore, how the expansion and contraction of charged particles influenced by a full solar eclipse can set a template of for civil unrest and war motivated by fear and disorientation.

Thank you for your continued support.

Coming Next: How the same fluctuation of charged particles that can elicit human emotional discord, can produce a discord of its own with Earth in the way of tectonic shift and mantle plume instability giving way to dramatic earth changing events.

 

Our Solar System’s ‘Shocking’ Origin Story

According to one longstanding theory, our Solar System’s formation was triggered by a shock wave from an exploding supernova. The shock wave injected material from the exploding star into a neighboring cloud of dust and gas, causing it to collapse in on itself and form the Sun and its surrounding planets.

New work from Carnegie’s Alan Boss offers fresh evidence supporting this theory, modeling the Solar System’s formation beyond the initial cloud collapse and into the intermediate stages of star formation. It is published by the Astrophysical Journal.

One very important constraint for testing theories of Solar System formation is meteorite chemistry. Meteorites retain a record of the elements, isotopes, and compounds that existed in the system’s earliest days. One type, called carbonaceous chondrites, includes some of the most-primitive known samples.

An interesting component of chondrites’ makeup is something called short-lived radioactive isotopes. Isotopes are versions of elements with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Sometimes, as is the case with radioactive isotopes, the number of neutrons present in the nucleus can make the isotope unstable. To gain stability, the isotope releases energetic particles, which alters its number of protons and neutrons, transmuting it into another element.

Some isotopes that existed when the Solar System formed are radioactive and have decay rates that caused them to become extinct within tens to hundreds of million years. The fact that these isotopes still existed when chondrites formed is shown by the abundances of their stable decay products — also called daughter isotopes — found in some primitive chondrites. Measuring the amount of these daughter isotopes can tell scientists when, and possibly how, the chondrites formed.

A recent analysis of chondrites by Carnegie’s Myriam Telus was concerned with iron-60, a short-lived radioactive isotope that decays into nickel-60. It is only created in significant amounts by nuclear reactions inside certain kinds of stars, including supernovae or what are called asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars.

Because all the iron-60 from the Solar System’s formation has long since decayed, Telus’ research, published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, focused on its daughter product, nickel-60. The amount of nickel-60 found in meteorite samples — particularly in comparison to the amount of stable, “ordinary” iron-56 — can indicate how much iron-60 was present when the larger parent body from which the meteorite broke off was formed. There are not many options for how an excess of iron-60 — which later decayed into nickel-60 — could have gotten into a primitive Solar System object in the first place — one of them being a supernova.

While her research did not find a “smoking gun,” definitively proving that the radioactive isotopes were injected by a shock wave, Telus did show that the amount of Fe-60 present in the early Solar System is consistent with a supernova origin.

Taking this latest meteorite research into account, Boss revisited his earlier models of shock wave-triggered cloud collapse, extending his computational models beyond the initial collapse and into the intermediate stages of star formation, when the Sun was first being created, an important next step in tying together Solar System origin modeling and meteorite sample analysis.

“My findings indicate that a supernova shock wave is still the most-plausible origin story for explaining the short lived radioactive isotopes in our Solar System,” Boss said.

Boss dedicated his paper to the late Sandra Keiser, a long-term collaborator, who provided computational and programming support at Carnegie’s Department of Terrestrial Magnetism for more than two decades. Keiser died in March.

UPDATE: NSO Predicts Shape of Solar Corona for August 2017 Eclipse

The 2017 eclipse will offer a unique opportunity to observe the corona for more than 90 minutes, many times longer than a typical eclipse. However, NSO (National Solar Observatory) is preparing to change how we look at the solar corona forever. Using this observatory, which will house the most powerful solar telescope in the world, scientists will be able to consistently measure the magnetic fields in the solar corona directly for the very first time. “The solar corona is largely an enigma,” according to Dr. Valentin Pillet, Director of NSO.

“For now, the best we can do is compare high resolution images of the solar corona, such as those we’ll obtain during the eclipse, to our theoretical models. But DKIST will allow us to actually measure the magnetic fields in the corona. This will be revolutionary in the field of solar physics.”

Solar Corona Eclipse National Solar Observatory

But there is more to the corona than one might initially realize. Dr. Gordon Petrie from the National Solar Observatory (NSO) explains: “The corona might look like it’s a fuzzy halo around the Sun, but it actually has quite a lot of structure to it. The Sun has a magnetic field that, at first glance, might remind us of the middle-school experiment where you sprinkle iron filings over a bar magnet to get a butterfly shape. However, on closer inspection, it is far more complicated than that.”

The Sun’s magnetic field is rooted inside of the Sun, and protrudes through the surface leaving marks we recognize as Sunspots. Since we cannot directly observe magnetic fields, we use the super-heated gases present in the Sun’s atmosphere to trace out the magnetic field lines, similar to the role of iron filings in the aforementioned bar magnet experiment. Under normal circumstances, the solar corona – the outermost layer of the Sun’s atmosphere – is hidden from view by the bright solar surface. During an eclipse, the surface is blocked, allowing the corona to shine through.

“The corona changes its shape over time, and looks drastically different during solar maximum compared to solar minimum,” explains Dr. David Boboltz, the National Science Foundation’s program officer for the NSO. “During solar maximum, such as the 2012 eclipse, the corona looks like a spiky ring around the entire Sun. In contrast, a solar minimum eclipse such as the one this month, will have lots of complexity near the equator but will be drastically different near the north and south poles of the Sun.”

Thank you for your continued support. We’re now about half way there.

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Watch for ongoing reports as information comes in. I also plan to present greater outlines to the science behind by research, especially for those who may be new to my work.

Eclipse Balloons To Study Effect Of Mars-Like Environment On Life

Steps forward in the search for life beyond Earth can be as simple as sending a balloon into the sky. In one of the most unique and extensive eclipse observation campaigns ever attempted, NASA is collaborating with student teams across the U.S. to do just that.

A larger initiative, NASA’s Eclipse Balloon Project, led by Angela Des Jardins of Montana State University, is sending more than 50 high-altitude balloons launched by student teams across the U.S. to livestream aerial footage of the Aug. 21 total solar eclipse from the edge of space to NASA’s website.

“Total solar eclipses are rare and awe-inspiring events. Nobody has ever live-streamed aerial video footage of a total solar eclipse before,” said Angela Des Jardins. “By live-streaming it on the Internet, we are providing people across the world an opportunity to experience the eclipse in a unique way, even if they are not able to see the eclipse directly.”

A research group at NASA’s Ames Research Center, in California’s Silicon Valley, is seizing the opportunity to conduct a low-cost experiment on 34 of the balloons. This experiment, called MicroStrat, will simulate life’s ability to survive beyond Earth—and maybe even on Mars.

“The August solar eclipse gives us a rare opportunity to study the stratosphere when it’s even more Mars-like than usual,” said Jim Green, director of planetary science at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “With student teams flying balloon payloads from dozens of points along the path of totality, we’ll study effects on microorganisms that are coming along for the ride.”

NASA will provide each team with two small metal cards, each the size of a dog tag. The cards have harmless, yet environmentally resilient bacteria dried onto their surface. One card will fly up with the balloon while the other remains on the ground. A comparison of the two will show the consequences of the exposure to Mars-like conditions, such as bacterial survival and any genetic changes.

The results of the experiment will improve NASA’s understanding of environmental limits for terrestrial life, in order to inform our search for life on other worlds.

Mars’ atmosphere at the surface is about 100 times thinner than Earth’s, with cooler temperatures and more radiation. Under normal conditions, the upper portion of our stratosphere is similar to these Martian conditions, with its cold, thin atmosphere and exposure to radiation, due to its location above most of Earth’s protective ozone layer. Temperatures where the balloons fly can reach minus 35 degrees Fahrenheit (about minus 37 Celsius) or colder, with pressures about a hundredth of that at sea level.

During the eclipse, the similarities to Mars only increase. The Moon will buffer the full blast of radiation and heat from the Sun, blocking certain ultraviolet rays that are less abundant in the Martian atmosphere and bringing the temperature down even further.

“Performing a coordinated balloon microbiology experiment across the entire continental United States seems impossible under normal circumstances,” said David J. Smith of Ames, principal investigator for the experiment and mentor for the Space Life Science Training Program, the intern group developing flight hardware and logistics for this study. “The solar eclipse on August 21st is enabling unprecedented exploration through citizen scientists and students. After this experiment flies, we will have about 10 times more samples to analyze than all previously flown stratosphere microbiology missions combined.”

Student Teams Observing the Eclipse

Beyond the opportunity for NASA to conduct science, this joint project provides the opportunity for students as young as 10 years old to be exposed to the scientific method and astrobiology—research about life beyond Earth. Since ballooning is such an accessible and low-cost technique, the project has attracted student teams from Puerto Rico to Alaska.

The data collected by the teams will be analyzed by NASA scientists at Ames and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California; collaborators at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York; scientists funded by the National Science Foundation and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration; faculty members and students at the teams’ institutions, as well as the public.

“This project will not only provide insight into how bacterial life responds to Mars-like conditions, we are engaging and inspiring the next generation of scientists,” said Green. “Through this exciting ‘piggyback’ mission, NASA is collaborating with scientists of the future to take a small step in the search for life beyond our planet.”

European Space Agency Gives Go-Ahead For LISA Mission for 2034

After years of delays and sluggish development process, the highly ambitious Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission has finally received authorization from the European Space Agency (ESA), confirmed an official announcement.

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a proposed mission of the European Space Agency which is intended to find out and precisely measure the enigmatic gravitational waves – the tiny ripples located in the material of space-time. With the help of astronomical sources, the LISA mission will help astronauts learning more about the gravitational waves, Earth-like planets, and deep-space cataclysms. LISA is also the very first dedicated mission to detect the space-based gravitational waves. By employing the technique of laser interferometers, LISA will collect information about the mysterious objects and topics of the celestial realm.

Years back, the LISA project was commenced as a collaborative mission between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). However, in 2011, because of the limitations in funding, NASA stepped back from the mission, and since then, the project was on the backburner. However, after almost six years, in a bid to take the long-standing project forward, the panel of ESA has given the LISA project “Go-Ahead” label, confirmed a senior official of ESA – Mark McCaughrean.

As said by Mark McCaughrean, the senior adviser of ESA for science & exploration, “There is a mixed feeling of super-enthusiasm and “at last”. We’re finally standing at the starting line of LISA, and the green light for the mission is already on – it’s so great.”

As per the official source, the design of LISA consists of three indistinguishable satellites which will orbit the Sun in a triangle motion. Each satellite will move at 2.5 million kilometers away from the next. The side layers of the triangle, made of satellites will be powerful enough to bounce the lasers to and from the spacecraft. Whenever any large celestial objects like black holes pass through space, they will create gravitational waves, and following the event, satellites of LISA will track down how these gravitational wields distort space through infinitesimal alterations in the distance covered by the laser beams.

As ESA said, for detecting these minuscule alterations, on a scale of lower than a trillionth of a metre, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna satellite will pay no heed to cosmic rays as well as those tiny particles and light, emitted by the Sun.

Being a truly large-scale space mission, LISA project will help scientists learning more about one of the world’s most indefinable astronomical phenomena – gravitational waves. With LISA, astronomers will be capable of observing the entire cosmos directly with the enigmatic gravitational waves. Apart from this, the mission will also help them learn about the configuration of stellar evolution, formation of galactic structures and galaxies, the early universe, and the arrangement and qualities of space-time itself.

BREAKING NEWS: New Study Suggests Electric Discharge Between Earth’s Core and Magnetic Field

This news release highlights the observation of charged particles in the form of what is sometimes described as “sprites”, which is an electrical discharge which surges from “below” to “above”. It is similar to the mechanics of a local lightening/thunderstorm we witness here on Earth. To the typical observer, it appears that lightening comes down from the heavens and strikes the Earth; however, it is the intense impulse of charge which comes from the ground which produces high voltage.

The existence of these upper atmosphere sprites has been reported by pilots for years sparking a healthy debate as to their cause and how they exist. ESA astronaut Andreas Mogensen during his mission on the International Space Station in 2015 was asked to take pictures over thunderstorms with the most sensitive camera on the orbiting outpost to look for these brief features.

Denmark’s National Space Institute has now published the results of photos taken by ESA astronaut Andreas Mogensen, of upper atmosphere discharges, sometimes referred to as blue lightening or ‘sprites’. The video taken by Mogensen were from the (ISS) International Space Station. (shown below)

The cause or effects of these charged particle events are not well understood. Researched data does suggest a connection between Earth’s magnetic field and Earth’s core. With this hypothesis as a foundation, my personal research suggest a continued conjunction goes beyond our Heliosphere and into our galaxy Milky Way.

The blue discharges and jets are examples of a little-understood part of our atmosphere called the heliosphere. The Heliosphere is the outer atmosphere of the Sun and marks the edge of the Sun’s magnetic influence in space. The solar wind that streams out in all directions from the rotating Sun is a magnetic plasma, and it fills the vast space between the planets in our solar system.

The magnetic plasma from the Sun does not conjoin with the magnetic plasma between the stars in our galaxy, allowing the solar wind carves out a bubble-like atmosphere that shields our solar system from the majority of galactic cosmic rays.

Andreas concludes, “It is not every day that you get to capture a new weather phenomenon on film, so I am very pleased with the result – but even more so that researchers will be able to investigate these intriguing thunderstorms in more detail soon.”

Both Push and Pull Drive Our Galaxy’s Race Through Space

Although we can’t feel it, we’re in constant motion: the earth spins on its axis at about 1,600 km/h; it orbits around the Sun at about 100,000 km/h; the Sun orbits our Milky Way galaxy at about 850,000 km/h; and the Milky Way galaxy and its companion galaxy Andromeda are moving with respect to the expanding universe at roughly 2 million km/h (630 km per second). But what is propelling the Milky Way’s race through space?

Until now, scientists assumed that a dense region of the universe is pulling us toward it, in the same way that gravity made Newton’s apple fall to earth. The initial “prime suspect” was called the Great Attractor, a region of a half dozen rich clusters of galaxies 150 million lightyears from the Milky Way. Soon after, attention was drawn to an area of more than two dozen rich clusters, called the Shapley Concentration, which sits 600 million lightyears beyond the Great Attractor.

Now researchers led by Prof. Yehuda Hoffman at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem report that our galaxy is not only being pulled, but also pushed. In a new study in the forthcoming issue of Nature Astronomy, they describe a previously unknown, very large region in our extragalactic neighborhood. Largely devoid of galaxies, this void exerts a repelling force on our Local Group of galaxies.

“By 3-d mapping the flow of galaxies through space, we found that our Milky Way galaxy is speeding away from a large, previously unidentified region of low density. Because it repels rather than attracts, we call this region the Dipole Repeller,” said Prof. Yehuda Hoffman. “In addition to being pulled towards the known Shapley Concentration, we are also being pushed away from the newly discovered Dipole Repeller. Thus it has become apparent that push and pull are of comparable importance at our location.”

The presence of such a low density region has been suggested previously, but confirming the absence of galaxies by observation has proved challenging. But in this new study, Hoffman, at the Hebrew university’s Racah Institutes of Physics, working with colleagues in the USA and France, tried a different approach.

Using powerful telescopes, among them the Hubble Space Telescope, they constructed a 3-dimensional map of the galaxy flow field. Flows are direct responses to the distribution of matter, away from regions that are relatively empty and toward regions of mass concentration; the large scale structure of the universe is encoded in the ?ow ?eld of galaxies.

They studied the peculiar velocities – those in excess of the Universe’s rate of expansion – of galaxies around the Milky Way, combining different datasets of peculiar velocities with a rigorous statistical analysis of their properties. They thereby inferred the underlying mass distribution that consists of dark matter and luminous galaxies—over-dense regions that attract and under-dense ones that repel.

By identifying the Dipole Repeller, the researchers were able to reconcile both the direction of the Milky Way’s motion and its magnitude. They expect that future ultra-sensitive surveys at optical, near-infrared and radio wavelengths will directly identify the few galaxies expected to lie in this void, and directly confirm the void associated with the Dipole Repeller.