New Space Weather Model Helps Simulate Magnetic Structure of Solar Storms

The dynamic space environment that surrounds Earth – the space our astronauts and spacecraft travel through – can be rattled by huge solar eruptions from the Sun, which spew giant clouds of magnetic energy and plasma, a hot gas of electrically charged particles, out into space. The magnetic field of these solar eruptions are difficult to predict and can interact with Earth’s magnetic fields, causing space weather effects.

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A new tool called EEGGL – short for the Eruptive Event Generator (Gibson and Low) and pronounced “eagle” – helps map out the paths of these magnetically structured clouds, called coronal mass ejections or CMEs, before they reach Earth. EEGGL is part of a much larger new model of the corona, the Sun’s outer atmosphere, and interplanetary space, developed by a team at the University of Michigan. Built to simulate solar storms, EEGGL helps NASA study how a CME might travel through space to Earth and what magnetic configuration it will have when it arrives. The model is hosted by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center, or CCMC, at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

The new model is known as a “first principles” model because its calculations are based on the fundamental physics theory that describes the event – in this case, the plasma properties and magnetic free energy, or electromagnetics, guiding a CME’s movement through space.

Such computer models can help researchers better understand how the Sun will affect near-Earth space, and potentially improve our ability to predict space weather, as is done by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Taking into account the magnetic structure of a CME from its initiation at the Sun could mark a big step in CME modeling; various other models initiate CMEs solely based on the kinematic properties, that is, the mass and initial velocity inferred from spacecraft observations. Incorporating the magnetic properties at CME initiation may give scientists a better idea of a CME’s magnetic structure and ultimately, how this structure influences the CME’s path through space and interaction with Earth’s magnetic fields – an important piece to the puzzle of the Sun’s dynamic behavior.

The model begins with real spacecraft observations of a CME, including the eruption’s initial speed and location on the Sun, and then projects how the CME could travel based on the fundamental laws of electromagnetics. Ultimately, it returns a series of synthetic images, which look similar to those produced of actual observations from NASA and ESA’s SOHO or NASA’s STEREO, simulating the CME’s propagation through space.

A team led by Tamas Gombosi at the University of Michigan’s Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering developed the model as part of its Space Weather Modeling Framework, which is also hosted at the CCMC. All of the CCMC’s space weather models are available for use and study by researchers and the public through runs on request. In addition, EEGGL, and the model it supports, is the first “first principles” model to simulate CMEs including their magnetic structure open to the public.

ALMA Starts Observing the Sun – VIDEO

Astronomers have harnessed ALMA‘s capabilities to image the millimeter-wavelength light emitted by the Sun’s chromosphere – the region that lies just above the photosphere, which forms the visible surface of the Sun. The solar campaign team, an international group of astronomers with members from Europe, North America and East Asia, produced the images as a demonstration of ALMA’s ability to study solar activity at longer wavelengths of light than are typically available to solar observatories on Earth.   Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

Astronomers have studied the Sun and probed its dynamic surface and energetic atmosphere in many ways through the centuries. But, to achieve a fuller understanding, astronomers need to study it across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, including the millimeter and submillimeter portion that ALMA can observe.

       

Since the Sun is many billions of times brighter than the faint objects ALMA typically observes, the ALMA antennas were specially designed to allow them to image the Sun in exquisite detail using the technique of radio interferometry – and avoid damage from the intense heat of the focused sunlight. The result of this work is a series of images that demonstrate ALMA’s unique vision and ability to study our Sun.The data from the solar observing campaign are being released this week to the worldwide astronomical community for further study and analysis.

The team observed an enormous sunspot at wavelengths of 1.25 millimeters and 3 millimeters using two of ALMA’s receiver bands. The images reveal differences in temperature between parts of the Sun’s chromosphere. Understanding the heating and dynamics of the chromosphere are key areas of research that will be addressed in the future using ALMA.Sunspots are transient features that occur in regions where the Sun’s magnetic field is extremely concentrated and powerful. They are lower in temperature than the surrounding regions, which is why they appear relatively dark.

The difference in appearance between the two images is due to the different wavelengths of emitted light being observed. Observations at shorter wavelengths are able to probe deeper into the Sun, meaning the 1.25 millimeter images show a layer of the chromosphere that is deeper, and therefore closer to the photosphere, than those made at a wavelength of 3 millimeters.

ALMA is the first facility where ESO is a partner that allows astronomers to study the nearest star, our own Sun. All other existing and past ESO facilities need to be protected from the intense solar radiation to avoid damage. The new ALMA capabilities will expand the ESO community to include solar astronomers.

Realistic Solar Corona Loops Simulated In Lab

Caltech applied physicists have experimentally simulated the Sun’s magnetic fields to create a realistic coronal loop in a lab.

solar-loop

Coronal loops are arches of plasma that erupt from the surface of the Sun following along magnetic field lines. Because plasma is an ionized gas—that is, a gas of free-flowing electrons and ions—it is an excellent conductor of electricity. As such, solar corona loops are guided and shaped by the Sun’s magnetic field.

The Earth’s magnetic field acts as a shield that protects humans from the strong X-rays and energized particles emitted by the eruptions, but communications satellites orbit outside this shield field and therefore remain vulnerable. In March 1989, a particularly large flare unleashed a blast of charged particles that temporarily knocked out one of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s geostationary operational environmental satellites that monitor the earth’s weather; caused a sensor problem on the space shuttle Discovery; and tripped circuit breakers on Hydro-Québec’s power grid, which caused a major blackout in the province of Quebec, Canada, for nine hours.

“This potential for causing havoc—which only increases the more humanity relies on satellites for communications, weather forecasting, and keeping track of resources—makes understanding how these solar events work critically important,” says Paul Bellan, professor of applied physics in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science.

Although simulated coronal loops have been created in labs before, this latest attempt incorporated a magnetic strapping field that binds the loop to the Sun’s surface. Think of a strapping field like the metal hoops on the outside of a wooden barrel. While the slats of the barrel are continually under pressure pushing outward, the metal hoops sit perpendicularly to the slats and hold the barrel together.

The strength of this strapping field diminishes with distance from the Sun. This means that when close to the solar surface, the loops are clamped down tightly by the strapping field but then can break loose and blast away if they rise to a certain altitude where the strapping field is weaker. These eruptions are known as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).

CMEs are rope-like discharges of hot plasma that accelerate away from the Sun’s surface at speeds of more than a million miles per hour. These eruptions are capable of releasing energy equivalent to 1 billion megatons of TNT, making them potentially the most powerful explosions in the solar system. (CMEs are not to be confused with solar flares, which often occur as part of the same event. Solar flares are bursts of light and energy, while CMEs are blasts of particles embedded in a magnetic field.)

The simulated loops and strapping fields provide new insight into how energy is stored in the solar corona and then released suddenly. Bellan worked with Caltech graduate student Bao Ha (MS ’10, PhD ’16) to create the strapping field and coronal loop. The results of their experiments were published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters on September 17, 2016.

Bellan and his colleagues have been working on laboratory-scale simulations of solar corona phenomena for two decades. In the lab, the team generates ropes of plasma in a 1.5-meter-long vacuum chamber.

“Studying coronal mass ejections is challenging, since humans do not know how and when the Sun will erupt. But laboratory experiments permit the control of eruption parameters and enable the systematic explorations of eruption dynamics,” says Ha, lead author of the GRL paper. “While experiments with the same eruption parameters are easily reproducible, the loop dynamics vary depending on the configuration of the strapping magnetic field.”

Simulating a strapping field with strength that fades over the relatively short length of the vacuum chamber proved difficult, Bellan says. In order to make it work, Ha and Bellan had to engineer electromagnetic coils that produce the strapping field inside the chamber itself.

After more than three years of design, fabrication, and testing, Bellan and Ha were able to create a strapping field that peaks in strength about 10 centimeters away from where the plasma loop forms, then dies off a short distance farther down the vacuum chamber.

The arrangement allows Bellan and Ha to watch the plasma loop slowly grow in size, then reach a critical point and fire off to the far end of the chamber.

Next, Bellan plans to measure the magnetic field inside the erupting loop and also study the waves that are emitted when plasmas break apart.

Astronomers Gain New Insight Into Magnetic Field Of Sun And Its Kin

Astronomers have used data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory to make a discovery that may have profound implications for understanding how the magnetic field in the Sun and stars like it are generated.

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Researchers have discovered that four old red dwarf stars with masses less than half that of the Sun are emitting X-rays at a much lower rate than expected.

X-ray emission is an excellent indicator of a star’s magnetic field strength so this discovery suggests that these stars have much weaker magnetic fields than previously thought.

Since young stars of all masses have very high levels of X-ray emission and magnetic field strength, this suggests that the magnetic fields of these stars weakened over time. While this is a commonly observed property of stars like our Sun, it was not expected to occur for low-mass stars, as their internal structure is very different.

The Sun and stars like it are giant spheres of superheated gas. The Sun’s magnetic field is responsible for producing sunspots, its 11-year cycle, and powerful eruptions of particles from the solar surface. These solar storms can produce spectacular auroras on Earth, damage electrical power systems, knock out communications satellites, and affect astronauts in space.

“We have known for decades that the magnetic field on the Sun and other stars plays a huge role in how they behave, but many details remain mysterious,” said lead author Nicholas Wright of Keele University in the United Kingdom. “Our result is one step in the quest to fully understand the Sun and other stars.”

The rotation of a star and the flow of gas in its interior both play a role in producing its magnetic field. The rotation of the Sun and similar stars varies with latitude (the poles versus the equator) as well as in depth below the surface. Another factor in the generation of magnetic field is convection. Similar to the circulation of warm air inside an oven, the process of convection in a star distributes heat from the interior of the star to its surface in a circulating pattern of rising cells of hot gas and descending cooler gas.

Convection occurs in the outer third (by radius) of the Sun, while the hot gas closer to the core remains relatively still. There is a difference in the speed of rotation between these two regions. Many astronomers think this difference is responsible for generating most of the magnetic field in the Sun by causing magnetic fields along the border between the convection zone and the core to wind up and strengthen. Since stars rotate more slowly as they age, this also plays a role in how the magnetic field of such stars weakens with time.

“In some ways you can think of the inside of a star as an incredibly complicated dance with many, many dancers,” said co-author Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. “Some dancers move with each other while others move independently. This motion generates magnetic field, but how it works in detail is extremely challenging to determine.”

For stars much less massive than the Sun, convection occurs all the way into the core of the star. This means the boundary between regions with and without convection, thought to be crucial for generating magnetic field in the Sun, does not exist. One school of thought has been that magnetic field is generated mostly by convection in such stars. Since convection does not change as a star ages, their magnetic fields would not weaken much over time.

By studying four of these low-mass red dwarf stars in X-rays, Wright and Drake were able to test this hypothesis. They used NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory to study two of the stars and data from the ROSAT satellite to look at two others.

“We found that these smaller stars have magnetic fields that decrease as they age, exactly as it does in stars like our Sun,” said Wright. “This really goes against what we would have expected.”

These results imply that the interaction along the convection zone-core boundary does not dominate the generation of magnetic field in stars like our Sun, since the low mass stars studied by Wright and Drake lack such a region and yet their magnetic properties are very similar.

A paper describing these results by Wright and Drake appears in the July 28th issue of the journal Nature. NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra’s science and flight operations.

Breaking News: Is Earth’s Atmosphere Leaking?

A new study was released over the weekend stating Earth’s atmosphere is leaking. It is presented as if this is a new phenomena just learned and the researchers delivery paints a picture of scientists running around frantically as if they are huddled together thinking to themselves “oh shiet, we must plug the hole….”

Earth_Atmosphere_Leaking1_m

Here’s the fact: the Earth’s atmosphere has always been “leaking” – sometimes more than others. Once again, it truly is the Science of Cycles that wins the day. The question really at hand here is; what is the cause of these cyclical expansion and contraction periods? For those of you who have been following my work already know the answer. But of course there are always new people discovering ScienceOfCycles.com so I must present where my research leads us. Now I am very happy to say, it is not just my research but several other recently published papers from Universities and governmental agencies have also discovered this new awareness of cycles that extend to our galaxy Milky Way and beyond.

Our home Earth, protects us from most seriously dangerous radiation and electrical surges. It does so by creating a magnetic field which is produced through the geodynamic process of convection in the outer cores liquid iron producing currents.

sun_magnetic_field_magnetic_core

What we are witnessing today, is Earth’s natural ability to maintain its ambient rotation and orbital balance. Currently, the Earth’s magnetic field is weakening, which therefore allows a greater amount of charged particles and plasma to enter our atmosphere. As a result, Earth’s core begins to overheat. As a way to expend this overheating, Earth produces more mantle plumes which works their way up through the upper mantle, advances into the asthenoshpere, extends through the lithosphere, and breaks through the crust. This process markedly resembles that of humans  when become overheated ‘sweat’ through their pores cooling the body.

The opposite occurs when the Earth’s core becomes slightly too cool, then mantle plumes dissipate, oceans and atmosphere begin to cool and temperatures may fluctuate and lower…then the cycle starts all over again. The time period between these warming and cooling trends do in fact vary, however, they do maintain short-term, moderate, and long-term cycles. This could be 11 year, 100 year, 1000 year and etc.

I have no illusion of my work being recognized by the major world space agencies, I do not have the pedigree nor do I have some form of contractual agreement with them. However, I have been able to maintain my connection with some of the brightest scientists who do in fact work for said agencies and Universities. Some might call me a colleague, others I surely call my mentors. There will be a time in the not to distant future when you will see my 2012 Equation being announced to the public. But it will not be my name attached to this new discovery. I can assure you it will be one from our government space agency, or Europe or Netherlands. All of which is truly fine with me. And if it’s one with whom I have been working with, I will clap the loudest.

_new_equation 2012

Before I go on, I hope you will see this new release ties in with the last five or so released scientific papers. From my point of view they all point to the same direction. (see 2012 Equation)

(NASA) Earth’s atmosphere is leaking. Every day, around 90 tons of material escapes from our planet’s upper atmosphere and streams out into space. Although missions such as ESA’s Cluster fleet have long been investigating this leakage, there are still many open questions. How and why is Earth losing its atmosphere – and how is this relevant in our hunt for lie elsewhere in the Universe?

Given the expanse of our atmosphere, 90 tons per day amounts to a small leak. Earth’s atmosphere weighs in at around five quadrillion (5 × 1015) tons so we are in no danger of running out any time soon.

ESO_IllustrationJune09

We have been exploring Earth’s magnetic environment for years using satellites such as ESA’s Cluster mission, a fleet of four spacecraft launched in 2000. Cluster has been continuously observing the magnetic interactions between the Sun and Earth for over a decade and half; this longevity, combined with its multi-spacecraft capabilities and unique orbit, have made it a key player in understanding both Earth’s leaking atmosphere and how our planet interacts with the surrounding Solar System.

Earth’s magnetic field is complex; it extends from the interior of our planet out into space, exerting its influence over a region of space dubbed the magnetosphere.

The magnetosphere – and its inner region (the plasmasphere), a doughnut-shaped portion sitting atop our atmosphere, which co-rotates with Earth and extends to an average distance of 12,427 miles (20,000 km) – is flooded with charged particles and ions that are trapped, bouncing back and forth along field lines.

magnetosphere66

At its outer sunward edge, the magnetosphere meets the solar wind, a continuous stream of charged particles – mostly protons and electrons – flowing from the Sun. Here, our magnetic field acts like a shield, deflecting and rerouting the incoming wind as a rock would obstruct a stream of water. This analogy can be continued for the side of Earth further from the Sun – particles within the solar wind are sculpted around our planet and slowly come back together, forming an elongated tube (named the magneto-tail), which contains trapped sheets of plasma and interacting field lines.

However, our magnetosphere shield does have its weaknesses; at Earth’s poles the field lines are open, like those of a standard bar magnet (these locations are named the polar cusps). Here, solar wind particles can head inwards towards Earth, filling up the magnetosphere with energetic particles.

Just as particles can head inwards down these open polar lines, particles can also head outwards. Ions from Earth’s upper atmosphere – the ionosphere, which extends to roughly 621 miles (1000 km) above the Earth – also flood out to fill up this region of space. Although missions such as Cluster have discovered much, the processes involved remain unclear.

cluster_electrons

“The question of plasma transport and atmospheric loss is relevant for both planets and stars, and is an incredibly fascinating and important topic. Understanding how atmospheric matter escapes is crucial to understanding how life can develop on a planet,” said Arnaud Masson, ESA’s Deputy Project Scientist for the Cluster mission. “The interaction between incoming and outgoing material in Earth’s magnetosphere is a hot topic at the moment; where exactly is this stuff coming from? How did it enter our patch of space?”

Initially, scientists believed Earth’s magnetic environment to be filled purely with particles of solar origin. However, as early as the 1990s it was predicted that Earth’s atmosphere was leaking out into the plasmasphere – something that has since turned out to be true. Given the expanse of our atmosphere, 90 tons per day amounts to a small leak. Earth’s atmosphere weighs in at around five quadrillion (5 × 1015) tons so we are in no danger of running out any time soon.

Observations have shown sporadic, powerful columns of plasma, dubbed plumes, growing within the plasmasphere, travelling outwards to the edge of the magnetosphere and interacting with solar wind plasma entering the magnetosphere.

More recent studies have unambiguously confirmed another source – Earth’s atmosphere is constantly leaking! Alongside the aforementioned plumes, a steady, continuous flow of material (comprising oxygen, hydrogen and helium ions) leaves our planet’s plasmasphere from the polar regions, replenishing the plasma within the magnetosphere. Cluster found proof of this wind, and has quantified its strength for both overall (reported in a paper published in 2013) and for hydrogen ions in particular (reported in 2009).

bowshock-drives-magnetosphere.

Overall, about 2.2 pounds (1 kg) of material is escaping our atmosphere every second, amounting to almost 90 tons per day. Singling out just cold ions (light hydrogen ions, which require less energy to escape and thus possess a lower energy in the magnetosphere), the escape mass totals thousands of tons per year.

Cold ions are important; many satellites – Cluster excluded – cannot detect them due to their low energies, but they form a significant part of the net matter loss from Earth, and may play a key role in shaping our magnetic environment.

Solar storms and periods of heightened solar activity appear to speed up Earth’s atmospheric loss significantly, by more than a factor of three. However, key questions remain: How do ions escape, and where do they originate? What processes are at play, and which is dominant? Where do the ions go? And how?

One of the key escape processes is thought to be centrifugal acceleration, which speeds up ions at Earth’s poles as they cross the shape-shifting magnetic field lines there. These ions are shunted onto different drift trajectories, gain energy and end up heading away from Earth into the magneto-tail, where they interact with plasma and return to Earth at far higher speeds than they departed with – a kind of boomerang effect.

cluster_observes_all_areas

Such high-energy particles can pose a threat to space-based technology, so understanding them is important. Cluster has explored this process multiple times during the past decade and a half – finding it to affect heavier ions such as oxygen more than lighter ones, and detecting strong, high-speed beams of ions rocketing back to Earth from the magneto-tail nearly 100 times over the course of three years.

More recently, scientists have explored the process of magnetic reconnection, one of the most efficient physical processes by which the solar wind enters Earth’s magnetosphere and accelerates plasma. In this process, plasma interacts and exchanges energy with magnetic field lines; different lines reconfigure themselves, breaking, shifting around and forging new connections by merging with other lines, releasing huge amounts of energy in the process.

Here, the cold ions are thought to be important. We know that cold ions affect the magnetic reconnection process, for example slowing down the reconnection rate at the boundary where the solar wind meets the magnetosphere (the magnetopause), but we are still unsure of the mechanisms at play.

“In essence, we need to figure out how cold plasma ends up at the magnetopause,” said Philippe Escoubet, ESA’s Project Scientist for the Cluster mission. “There are a few different aspects to this; we need to know the processes involved in transporting it there, how these processes depend on the dynamic solar wind and the conditions of the magnetosphere, and where plasma is coming from in the first place – does it originate in the ionosphere, the plasmasphere, or somewhere else?”

Recently, scientists modeled and simulated Earth’s magnetic environment with a focus on structures known as plasmoids and flux ropes – cylinders, tubes, and loops of plasma that become tangled up with magnetic field lines. These arise when the magnetic reconnection process occurs in the magnetotail and ejects plasmoids both towards the outer tail and towards Earth.

Cold ions may play a significant role in deciding the direction of the ejected plasmoid. These recent simulations showed a link between plasmoids heading towards Earth and heavy oxygen ions leaking out from the ionosphere – in other words, oxygen ions may reduce and quench the reconnection rates at certain points within the magneto-tail that produce tail-ward trajectories, thus making it more favorable at other sites that instead send them Earthwards. These results agree with existing Cluster observations.

Another recent Cluster study compared the two main atmospheric escape mechanisms Earth experiences – sporadic plumes emanating through the plasmasphere, and the steady leakage of Earth’s atmosphere from the ionosphere – to see how they might contribute to the population of cold ions residing at the dayside magnetopause (the magnetosphere-solar wind boundary nearest the Sun).

interplanetary_magnetic_field5

Both escape processes appear to depend in different ways on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), the solar magnetic field that is carried out into the Solar System by the solar wind. This field moves through space in a spiraling pattern due to the rotation of the Sun, like water released from a lawn sprinkler. Depending on how the IMF is aligned, it can effectively cancel out part of Earth’s magnetic field at the magnetopause, linking up and merging with our field and allowing the solar wind to stream in.

Plumes seem to occur when the IMF is oriented southward (anti-parallel to Earth’s magnetic field, thus acting as mentioned above). Conversely, leaking outflows from the ionosphere occur during northward-oriented IMF. Both processes occur more strongly when the solar wind is either denser or travelling faster (thus exerting a higher dynamic pressure).

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“While there is still much to learn, we’ve been able to make great progress here,” said Masson. “These recent studies have managed to successfully link together multiple phenomena – namely the ionospheric leak, plumes from the plasmasphere, and magnetic reconnection – to paint a better picture of Earth’s magnetic environment. This research required several years of ongoing observation, something we could only get with Cluster.”

 

 

JUST IN: Released Today, New Finding May Play Integral Role for Monitoring Earth’s Magnetic Flip

This is not the first time of such a rapid new discovery is published within days of an article I produced outlining my hypothesis and what is likely to come next.  Just two days ago I sent out my article titled New Study Reinforces Cyclical Magnetic Pole Reversals telling of the various descriptive patterns which have been shown to fit short and long term reversal cycles.

earth-magnetic-field-neutron field-diagram5

In an upcoming article later this week, I will describe signs and symptoms during the process of a full magnetic reversal which fits the pattern of historic cycles over what would be described as a ‘moderate’ time period, geologically speaking, covering a few hundred thousand years. There is also a longer term cycle which covers a few million years; however, there is also a short term cycle which occurs approximately every 40,000 years.

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Snapshots spaced about 2 kyr apart during a rapid magnetic polarity reversal from a numerical dynamo. Top sequence shows the evolution of the intensity of the radial component of the magnetic field on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Red contours indicate radially outward-directed magnetic field; blue contours indicate radially inward-directed magnetic field, with continental outlines shown for reference. Middle two sequences show the evolution of magnetic field lines within the core, color-coded according to their polarity (i.e., orientation) in the equatorial plane, with northward oriented magnetic field indicated by blue-colored field lines, and magnetic field pointing toward the south indicated by red-colored field lines. The bottom sequence shows the major vortices in the outer core, with red indicating positive (cyclonic) and blue indicating negative (anticyclonic) vorticity, respectively. Credit: Peter Olson – Johns Hopkins University

What I believe to be one of the most important questions, or should be, where in this current cycle are we today? My research covering the galaxy-sun-solar system connection which involves the discovery of various term cyclical events, suggests we are far along the process with just a few decades away from a significant excursion or full reversal.

I would suggest we are deep into the cycle, and perhaps far enough along to witness (and sense) magnetic north bouncing around the northern hemisphere above 60° latitude and swing down between 30° east and 30° west longitudes. Perhaps a most intriguing thought, is the idea that many of you are young enough to witness a phase of pronounced swings in both latitude and longitude within the next 50-60 years.

Mitch Battros 2012 Equation

In today’s news, the discovery of two massive mantle plumes, residing on opposite sides of our planet. They sit next to or directly on the inner core approximately 1,800 miles (2,896 km) deep. This would be just the type of massive plume which could create a wobble as it goes through its natural process of convection.

Arizona State University scientists Edward Garnero, Allen McNamara and Sang-Heon (Dan) Shim, of the School of Earth and Space Exploration head up the team, and their work appears in the June issue of Nature Geoscience. “We believe our finding will help explain the plumbing that leads to some massive volcanic eruptions, as well as the mechanism of plate tectonics from the convection, or stirring, of the mantle. This is the geo-force that drives earthquakes.

massive_mantle_plumes

Earth is layered like an onion, with a thin outer crust, a thick viscous mantle, a fluid outer core and a solid inner core. The two plumes sit in the mantle on top of Earth’s core, under the Pacific Ocean on one side and beneath Africa and the Atlantic Ocean on the other.

Waves from earthquakes passing through Earth’s deep interior have revealed that these plumes are regions where seismic waves travel slowly. The mantle materials that surround these regions are thought to be composed of cooler rocks, associated with the downward movement of tectonic plates.

The plumes, also called thermo-chemical piles, have long been depicted as warmer-than-average mantle materials, pushed upward by a slow churning of hot mantle rock. The new paper argues they are also chemically different from the surrounding mantle rock, and may partly contain material pushed down by plate tectonics. They might even be material left over from Earth’s formation, 4.5 billion years ago.

Much is yet to be learned about these plumes. But the emerging view from seismic and geodynamic information is that they appear denser than the surrounding mantle materials, are dynamically stable and long-lived, and have been shaped by the mantle’s large-scale flow. The scientists expect that further work on the two deep-seated anomalies will help clarify the picture and tell of their origin.

“If a neuroscientist found an unknown structure in the human brain, the whole community of brain scientists, from psychologists to surgeons, would actively pursue understanding its role in the function of the whole system,” Garnero said.

“As the thermo-chemical piles come into sharper focus, we hope other Earth scientists will explore how these features fit into the big puzzle of planet Earth.”

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BREAKING NEWS: New Study Reinforces Cyclical Magnetic Pole Reversals

It is important to understand there are scientifically identified varying forms of cyclical events, sometimes referred to as time-variable control parameters. As it is with the nature of scientific formulas and equations, it can be a bit complicated. Therefore, I will explain in a way that is reflective of schematics.

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Specially related to Geophysics and Paleomagnetism, periods of magnetic reversals are basically defined in three forms of cycles. The reason for such variables, is unlike the study of solar cycles goes back only a few hundred years, the research related to Earth’s magnetic reversals covers billions of years. And to this researcher, it highlights Earth’s relationship to our galaxy Milky Way and beyond which I believe already shows cycles going back hundreds of thousands years, and at the rate of new research coming in, I believe new data will identify cyclical events related to our solar system going back to near the Big Bang.

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One measurement of a magnetic reversal (MR) is defined as ‘below random’. The reason for this variable is the period between supercrons and clustering. This is because of the variance in convection between the Earth’s core and mantle. In simple terms, it is yet specifically identified as to the external cause of heating and cooling cycles of Earth’s core. Again, to this writer, it is a sure sign the convection process goes far beyond or Sun’s influence. Remember, the Sun’s magnetic field reversal has only a 22 year oscillation; which actually suggests it plays a small part related to Earth’s magnetic reversal. However, this does not mean the solar flux does not cause harmful effects to Earth and humans. During times of high solar activity, solar flares and cmes can pierce through the magnetic field. And during times of low solar activity, the lack of solar plasma allows the more harmful and damaging Galactic Cosmic Rays to enter our atmosphere which brings with it a blast of radiation.

liquid-core

A second measurement of a MR cycle is defined as ‘nearly periodic’. Again, this has to do with periods of Earth’s development such as the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras. As the Earth’s inner core developed, of course this would have a developing influence on the convection process.

A third measurement of a MR cycle is defined as ‘time-dependent periodic’. This is to say, from the time of Earth’s fully developed inner core, there is a time-dependent cycle of magnetic fluctuation of a pre, during, and post reversal. The reason for the term “time-dependent” is directly related to the ebb and flow of mantle plumes. In other words, it is directly related to the heating and cooling of Earth’s core through the process of convection.

multipile magnetic fields ancient earth

Why is this important? Because it can be fully identified and measured. In other words, there will be signs and symptoms during the process. In fact, we are already seeing them. First the magnetic north pole will drift. It will continue and speed up over time and may go as far south as 40th degree parallel. Then in its final stages it will bounce back and forth between north and south, then finally and perhaps in a single day, flip completely.

More coming soon…………

 

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