First Evidence For Julius Caesar’s Invasion Of Britain Discovered

The first evidence for Julius Caesar’s invasion of Britain has been discovered by archaeologists from the University of Leicester.

Based on new evidence, the team suggests that the first landing of Julius Caesar’s fleet in Britain took place in 54BC at Pegwell Bay on the Isle of Thanet, the north — east point of Kent.

This location matches Caesar’s own account of his landing in 54 BC, with three clues about the topography of the landing site being consistent with him having landed in Pegwell Bay: its visibility from the sea, the existence of a large open bay, and the presence of higher ground nearby.

The project has involved surveys of hillforts that may have been attacked by Caesar, studies in museums of objects that may have been made or buried at the time of the invasions, such as coin hoards, and excavations in Kent.

The University of Leicester project, which is funded by the Leverhulme Trust, was prompted by the discovery of a large defensive ditch in archaeological excavations before a new road was built. The shape of the ditch at Ebbsfleet, a hamlet in Thanet, is very similar to some of the Roman defences at Alésia in France, where the decisive battle in the Gallic War took place in 52 BC.

The site, at Ebbsfleet, on the Isle of Thanet in north-east Kent overlooking Pegwell Bay, is now 900 m inland but at the time of Caesar’s invasions it was closer to the coast. The ditch is 4-5 metres wide and 2 metres deep and is dated by pottery and radiocarbon dates to the 1st century BC.

The size, shape, date of the defences at Ebbsfleet and the presence of iron weapons including a Roman pilum (javelin) all suggest that the site at Ebbsfleet was once a Roman base of 1st century BC date.

The archaeological team suggest the site may be up to 20 hectares in size and it is thought that the main purpose of the fort was to protect the ships of Caesar’s fleet that had been drawn up on to the nearby beach.

Dr Andrew Fitzpatrick, Research Associate from the University of Leicester’s School of Archaeology and Ancient History said: “The site at Ebbsfleet lies on a peninsular that projects from the south-eastern tip of the Isle of Thanet. Thanet has never been considered as a possible landing site before because it was separated from the mainland until the Middle Ages.

“However, it is not known how big the Channel that separated it from the mainland (the Wantsum Channel) was. The Wantsum Channel was clearly not a significant barrier to people of Thanet during the Iron Age and it certainly would not have been a major challenge to the engineering capabilities of the Roman army.”

Caesar’s own account of his landing in 54 BC is consistent with the landing site identified by the team.

Dr Fitzpatrick explained: “Sailing from somewhere between Boulogne and Calais, Caesar says that at sunrise they saw Britain far away on the left hand side. As they set sail opposite the cliffs of Dover, Caesar can only be describing the white chalk cliffs around Ramsgate which were being illuminated by the rising sun.

“Caesar describes how the ships were left at anchor at an even and open shore and how they were damaged by a great storm. This description is consistent with Pegwell Bay, which today is the largest bay on the east Kent coast and is open and flat. The bay is big enough for the whole Roman army to have landed in the single day that Caesar describes. The 800 ships, even if they landed in waves, would still have needed a landing front 1-2 km wide.

“Caesar also describes how the Britons had assembled to oppose the landing but, taken aback by the size of the fleet, they concealed themselves on the higher ground. This is consistent with the higher ground of the Isle of Thanet around Ramsgate.

“These three clues about the topography of the landing site; the presence of cliffs, the existence of a large open bay, and the presence of higher ground nearby, are consistent with the 54 BC landing having been in Pegwell Bay.”

The last full study of Caesar’s invasions was published over 100 years ago, in 1907.

It has long been believed that because Caesar returned to France the invasions were failures and that because the Romans did not leave a force of occupation the invasions had little or no lasting effects on the peoples of Briton. It has also been believed that because the campaigns were short they will have left few, if any, archaeological remains.

The team challenge this notion by suggesting that in Rome the invasions were seen as a great triumph. The fact that Caesar had crossed the sea and gone beyond the known world caused a sensation. At this time victory was achieved by defeating the enemy in battle, not by occupying their lands.

They also suggest that Caesar’s impact in Briton had long-standing effects which were seen almost 100 years later during Claudius’s invasion of Briton.

Professor Colin Haselgrove, the principal investigator for the project from the University of Leicester, explained: “It seems likely that the treaties set up by Caesar formed the basis for alliances between Rome and British royal families. This eventually resulted in the leading rulers of south-east England becoming client kings of Rome. Almost 100 years after Caesar, in AD 43 the emperor Claudius invaded Britain. The conquest of south-east England seems to have been rapid, probably because the kings in this region were already allied to Rome.

“This was the beginning of the permanent Roman occupation of Britain, which included Wales and some of Scotland, and lasted for almost 400 years, suggesting that Claudius later exploited Caesar’s legacy.”

The fieldwork for the project has been carried out by volunteers organised by the Community Archaeologist of Kent County Council who worked in partnership with the University of Leicester. The project was also supported by staff from the University of Leicester Archaeological Services (ULAS).

Kent County Council cabinet member Matthew Balfour said: “The council is delighted to have been able to work in partnership with the University of Leicester to help build on the incredible findings made during our road development. The archaeology of Thanet is very special and we are particularly pleased that such important findings have been made with the involvement of volunteers from the Kent community. When we built the road we ensured that the community played a big part in the archaeological works and it is satisfying to see the legacy of our original work continuing.”

Principal Archaeological Officer for Kent County Council Simon Mason, who oversaw the original road excavations carried out by Oxford Wessex Archaeology, said: “Many people do not realise just how rich the archaeology of the Isle of Thanet is. Being so close to the continent, Thanet was the gateway to new ideas, people, trade and invasion from earliest times. This has resulted in a vast and unique buried archaeological landscape with many important discoveries being regularly made. The peoples of Thanet were once witness to some of the earliest and most important events in the nation’s history: the Claudian invasion to start the period of Roman rule, the arrival of St Augustine’s mission to bring Christianity and the arrival of the Saxons celebrated through the tradition of Hengist and Horsa. It has been fantastic to be part of a project that is helping to bring another fantastic chapter, that of Caesar, to Thanet’s story.”

Andrew Mayfield said: “The project has been a fantastic opportunity for us to explore the extraordinary archaeology of Thanet alongside the University of Leicester team. Volunteers, both locally from Thanet and further afield in Kent, enthusiastically give up their time and the success of the dig is very much down to their hard work and commitment. We were also lucky to welcome students from both Canterbury Universities, a local branch of the Young Archaeologists Club as well as the local school. This was very much a team effort.”

The findings will be explored further as part of the BBC Four’s Digging For Britain. The East episode, in which the Ebbsfleet site appears, will be the second programme in the series, and will be broadcast on Wednesday 29 November 2017.

NOTE: Email Snafu Now Corrected – Can Now Receive ‘scienceofcycles.com’ Emails

I apologize for this pesky hindrance. It was not a security problem, all that’s fine, it was just a configuration nuisance. The only negative outcome is this bad headache I’m still trying to get rid of.

What really bothered me was I had just asked to hear from you on both the solar eclipse analysis, and my explanation for focusing more on cause of solar cycles, and to increase reporting on current solar events i.e. solar flares, CMEs (coronal mass ejections) etc.

As you know, we are in solar minimum, however, there has been a few significant hiccups. With regard to this period of low solar events, it does present another, perhaps more significant concern – ‘radiation’ from galactic cosmic rays.

I would like you to read the articles below to give you an idea of the direction my research is taking me. There will be a significant amount to come. New research is pouring out at the moment, and I plan to digest and report over the next days.

Galactic Cosmic Rays are high-energy particles arriving from outer space are mainly (89%) protons – nuclei of hydrogen, the lightest and most common element in the universe – but they also include nuclei of helium (10%) and heavier nuclei (1%), all the way up to uranium.

When they arrive at Earth, they collide with the nuclei of atoms in the upper atmosphere, creating more particles. The charged ions can swiftly decay, emitting particles called muons. Muons do not interact strongly with matter, and can travel through the atmosphere to penetrate below ground. The rate of muons arriving at the surface of the Earth is such that about one per second passes through a volume the size of a person’s head.

Science Of Cycles & Earth Changes Media – Facebook Page

TO THOSE REQUESTING FACEBOOK FRIEND: Thanks for requesting to be a friend on Earth Changes Media and Science Of Cycles. We hit our 5000 limit, but we have a mirror Facebook page with exactly the same information. Just go to the following link and request friend.
https://www.facebook.com/ScienceOfCycles

Cheers, Mitch

Wind Speed Isn’t The Best Way To Measure Hurricane Ferocity

From 1 to 5, the numbers we use to categorize hurricanes are ingrained in the minds of millions of Americans from Texas to Maine.

But that famed Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale, which only measures wind speed, is not the best way to gauge a storm’s ferocity, according to a study released Wednesday.

“Sandy is the classic example,” said Dan Chavas, an atmospheric scientist at Purdue University who led the study. “It was a very big storm, but in terms of maximum wind speed it was arguably not a hurricane.”

A better way involves barometric pressure, the study said. Specifically, it’s the difference in pressure between the center of the storm and outside it, which is officially known as the “central pressure deficit.”

“If you looked at the central pressure deficit, you would have expected Sandy to cause a lot of damage,” said Chavas. “But if you used maximum wind speed, as people usually do, you wouldn’t expect it to do the damage that it did.”

Sandy killed more than 150 people and caused $70.2 billion damage in the U.S., NOAA said.

Economic damages are better predicted by variations in central pressure than by peak storm wind speed since the central pressure combines both wind speed and storm size, the study found. The size of the storm is a critical factor in damage potential, particularly due to storm surge.

The limitations of the Saffir-Simpson scale have recently come under scrutiny. Wind speed is often only an estimate, and it’s also highly localized because it depends on a speed sustained for a short time in one location. However, it’s popular with the public and media because of its simplicity.

New ways of categorizing hurricanes have been proposed by many groups over the years, including the Hurricane Severity Index, the Cyclone Damage Potential Index and the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index. All take into account factors other than wind speed, the idea being that more variables make a scale more valuable. None have caught on yet.

The study appeared in the peer-reviewed British journal Nature Communications.

Jupiter’s X-Ray Auroras Pulse Independently

Jupiter’s intense northern and southern lights pulse independently of each other according to new UCL-led research using ESA’s XMM-Newton and NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatories.

The study, published today in Nature Astronomy, found that very high-energy X-ray emissions at Jupiter’s south pole consistently pulse every 11 minutes. Meanwhile those at the north pole are erratic: increasing and decreasing in brightness, independent of the south pole.

This behaviour is distinct from Earth’s north and south auroras which broadly mirror each other in activity. Other similarly large planets, such as Saturn, do not produce any detectable X-ray aurora, which makes the findings at Jupiter particularly puzzling.

“We didn’t expect to see Jupiter’s X-ray hot spots pulsing independently as we thought their activity would be coordinated through the planet’s magnetic field. We need to study this further to develop ideas for how Jupiter produces its X-ray aurora and NASA’s Juno mission is really important for this,” explained lead author, William Dunn (UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory, UK and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA).

Since arriving at Jupiter in 2016, the Juno mission has been re-writing much of what is known about the giant planet, but the spacecraft does not have an X-ray instrument on board. To understand how the X-ray aurora are produced, the team hope to combine the X-ray aurora information gathered using XMM-Newton and Chandra with data collected by Juno as it explores the regions producing Jupiter’s aurora.

“If we can start to connect the X-ray signatures with the physical processes that produce them, then we can use those signatures to understand other bodies across the Universe such as brown dwarfs, exoplanets or maybe even neutron stars. It is a very powerful and important step towards understanding X-rays throughout the Universe and one that we only have while Juno is conducting measurements simultaneously with Chandra and XMM-Newton,” said William Dunn.

One of the theories that Juno may help to prove or disprove is that Jupiter’s auroras form separately when the planet’s magnetic field interacts with the solar wind. The team suspect that the magnetic field lines vibrate, producing waves that carry charged particles towards the poles and these change in speed and direction of travel until they collide with Jupiter’s atmosphere, generating X-ray pulses.

Using the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observatories in May to June 2016 and March 2007, the authors produced maps of Jupiter’s X-ray emissions and identified an X-ray hot spot at each pole. Each hot spot covers an area much bigger than the surface of the earth. Studying each to identify patterns of behaviour, they found that the hot spots have very different characteristics.

“The behaviour of Jupiter’s X-ray hot spots raises important questions about what processes produce these auroras. We know that a combination of solar wind ions and ions of Oxygen and Sulphur, originally from volcanic explosions from Jupiter’s moon, Io, are involved. However, their relative importance in producing the X-ray emissions is unclear,” explained co-author Dr Licia Ray (Lancaster University).

“What I find particularly captivating in these observations, especially at the time when Juno is making measurements in situ, is the fact that we are able to see both of Jupiter’s poles at once, a rare opportunity that last occurred ten years ago. Comparing the behaviours at the two poles allows us to learn much more of the complex magnetic interactions going on in the planet’s environment,” concluded co-author Professor Graziella Branduardi-Raymont (UCL Space & Climate Physics).

The team hopes to keep tracking the activity of Jupiter’s poles over the next two years using X-ray observing campaigns in conjunction with Juno to see if this previously unreported behaviour is commonplace.

ANNOUNCEMENT: List of Sequent Events Related to Full Solar Eclipse as Predicted by Mitch Battros

Having received several emails requesting my stated predictions and the events which did in fact occur, I am producing a list of articles, in sequence, which will tell the story. You will notice I did place a heavier emphasis on earthquakes and volcanoes which did in fact occur, however, it was the shifting winds and ocean currents resulting in Cat. 4 and 5 hurricanes which caused the most fatalities and damage.

My prediction told of significant earth changing events would occur as a result of the August 21 2017 Full Solar Eclipse. The prediction had a 21 day window; 14 days prior to the event, and 14 days after. The cause of events was the result of waves of charged particles, in this case sometimes called ‘gravitational waves’, smashing into Earth’s weakened magnetic field allowing them to penetrate the lower and upper atmosphere causing shifting winds.

The punch continued down to Earth’s ocean’s causing a shift in currents producing tropical storms and hurricanes. The particles further made their way into Earth’s mantle having an effect on plate tectonics resulting in earthquake and volcanic activity.

BREAKING NEWS ANNOUNCEMENT: Prepare For Significant Earth Changing Events Within Weeks – CLICK HERE

August 21st Full Solar Eclipse Geographical Areas of Concerns – CLICK HERE

Cosmic Ray Penetration More Prevalent Than Realized – CLICK HERE

Solar Corona Eclipse National Solar Observatory

NSO Predicts Shape of Solar Corona for August 2017 Eclipses – CLICK HERE

Ocean Circulation, Coupled With Trade Wind Changes, Efficiently Limits Shifting Of Tropical Rainfall Patterns – CLICK HERE

New Study Affirms Mantle Plumes Source of Heated Surfaces – CLICK HERE

IMPORTANT UPDATE: New Research Shows Quake-Causing Cracks on Pacific Sea Floors – CLICK HERE

Cosmic Ray Flux, Geo-Political Unrest, Wars, and Earth Changing Events – CLICK HERE

The Causal Effect Between Cosmic Rays – Geo-Physical and Bio-Psycho-Social Outcomes – CLICK HERE

Today Earth Changing Events Begins; Here Is What to Look For – CLICK HERE

Mexico’s Popocatepetl Volcano Erupts – CLICK HERE

Earth Changing Events and Civil Disturbance Has Begun- CLICK HERE

NOAA Hurricane Prediction Updated and Raised by “Doubles” – CLICK HERE

The Battle Between ‘Disclosure vs Omission’ – CLICK HERE

JUST IN: NASA Mission Explores ‘Cosmic Rain’ – CLICK HERE

Massive 8.2 Magnitude Quake Hits Off Coast of Southern Mexico – CLICK HERE

Large 7.1 Earthquake Hits Mexico – CLICK HERE

So there you have it. Would you say the prediction was accurate; or do you believe it was just a coincidence? Let me know what you think. If you believe in this research in-part or in-whole, please keep us going with your support.  Cheers, Mitch

More To Come….

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Science Of Cycles Multi-Disaster Relief Initiative

Be a part of Science Of Cycles Multi-Disaster Relief Initiative. Lets come together and help those who need a helping hand. Notice I did not specify a hurricane name, why? Because there is more than Harvey and Irma heading our way. The banner is set up for you to be able to place any amount you wish.   Cheers, Mitch

 

 

New Research Supports Extraterrestrial Phosphorous Critical to Creation of Life on Earth

It is one of the great ironies of biochemistry: life on Earth could not have begun without water; yet water stymies some chemical reactions necessary for life itself. Researchers report today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they have found a novel, even poetic solution to the so-called “water problem”.

The water problem relates primarily to the element phosphorous, which is attached to a variety of life’s molecules through a process called phosphorylation. “You and I are alive because of phosphorus and phosphorylation,” said Richard Zare, a professor of chemistry and one of the paper’s senior authors. “You can’t have life without phosphorous.”

Phosphorous is a necessary ingredient in many molecules critical for life, including our DNA, it’s relative RNA and in the molecule that makes up our body’s energy storage system, called ATP. But ordinarily water gets in the way of producing those chemicals. Modern life has evolved ways of sidestepping that problem in the form of enzymes that help phosphorylation along. But how primitive components of these molecules formed before the workarounds evolved remains a controversial and at times slightly oddball subject. Among the proposed solutions are highly reactive forms of extraterrestrial phosphorous and heating powered by naturally occurring nuclear reactions.

Microdroplets solve the phosphorylation problem in a relatively elegant way, in large part because they have geometry on their side. It turns out that water is mostly a problem when the phosphate is floating around inside a pool of water or a primitive ocean, rather than on its surface.

Microdroplets are mostly surface. They perfectly optimize the need for life to form in and around water, but with enough surface area for phosphorylation and other reactions to occur.

In fact, the large amount of surface area provided by microdroplets is already known to be a great place for chemistry. Previous experiments suggest microdroplets can increase reaction rates for other processes by a thousand or even a million times, depending on the details of the reaction being studied.

Spontaneous molecules

Microdroplets seemed like a possible solution to the water problem. But to show that they really work, Zare and his colleagues sprayed tiny droplets of water, laced with phosphorous and other chemicals, into a chamber where the resulting compounds could be analyzed. They found several phosphate-containing molecules occurred spontaneously on these lab-made microdroplets without any catalyst to get them started. Those molecules included sugar phosphates, which are a step in how our cells create energy, and one of the molecules that make up RNA, a DNA relative that primitive organisms use to carry their genetic code. Both reactions are rare at best in larger volumes of water.

That observation, joined with the fact that microdroplets are ubiquitous – from clouds in the sky to the mist created by a crashing ocean wave – suggests that they could have played a role in fostering life on Earth. In the future, Zare hopes to look for phosphates that make up proteins and other molecules.

Even if he can produce those compounds, however, Zare does not believe he and his colleagues will have found the one true solution to the origin of life. “I don’t think we’re going to understand exactly how life began on Earth,” said Zare, who is also the Marguerite Blake Wilbur Professor in Natural Science. Essentially, he said, that is because no one can go back in time to watch what happened as life emerged and there is no good fossil record for the formation of biomolecules. “But we could understand some of the possibilities,” he added.