Friday at 12 midnight Wreaths Across America will end. Wreath’s will be laid the following morning at military cemeteries across the nation. This will be done with full ceremonies honoring those who game their lives. My two girls will be in full scout dress for this event. See below to sponsor your wreath today.

What does it mean to sponsor a veteran’s wreath? It means you will honor an American hero at one of more than 1,400 locations nationwide this year on Wreaths Across America Day. It is a day that is been set aside to lay wreaths at the places where we remember, honor, teach about our veterans.

We cannot do that without your support, though. Your sponsorship will ensure that a wreath is hand-crafted of all-American balsam and hand-tied with a red velvet bow here in Columbia Falls, Maine. It will then be sent to one of our participating locations, where a volunteer will place it on the marker of a fallen hero. That volunteer will then “say their name” to ensure that the legacy of duty, service, and sacrifice of that veteran is never forgotten.

So, what does it mean to sponsor a wreath? It means you have the opportunity to join a grateful nation in saying “thank you” to our veterans.

My two daughters are in scouts and will personally be placing wreaths at our local military cemetery. Your sponsored wreath will go to a central location and will be disseminated to more than 1400 military cemeteries nationwide. Each sponsored wreath is $15 and there is no limit to your order.

BREAKING NEWS: Earth’s Magnetic Poles Could Start to Flip

Today’s article will come as no surprise to Science Of Cycles readers. There have been several articles SOC published regarding this issue going back to 2012. One of the highly contested questions regarding the pole shift…is ‘where’ on the time line are we measured as of today. I address this in a few of my previous articles. A significant conveying influence to the makings of a magnetic pole reversal is the deluge of cosmic rays which has an effect on the Earth’s mantle and outer core.

The process of convection is amplified which can produce an imbalance that could cause a ‘bulge’, also can produce an acceleration of mantle plumes – which in-turn causes heating of the oceans. These processes can have an effect of Earth’s dipole which creates the North and South magnetic direction. 

Furthermore, my research presents a hypothesis suggesting the influx of cosmic rays during extended solar minimum cycles which could range from 40,000 years to 700,000 years – each being its own cycle within a cycle, could be a contributing factor in historic global extinctions.

As you might have guessed, a large part of my research is the study of cycles, hence, my company’s title; Science Of Cycles.  I will be presenting my article titled “Cosmic Rays Role in Historic Extinctions” tomorrow, which will comprise the latest research published on December 6th 2018.

As Earth’s magnetic shield fails, so do its satellites.First, our communications satellites in the highest orbits go down. Next,astronauts in low-Earth orbit can no longer phone home. And finally, cosmic rays start to bombard every human on Earth.

If Earth’s magnetic field were to decay significantly, it could collapse altogether and flip polarity – changing magnetic north to south and vice versa. The consequences of this process could be dire for our planet. Most worryingly, we may be headed right for this scenario.

‘The geomagnetic field has been decaying for the last 3,000 years,’ said Dr. Nicolas Thouveny from the European Center for Research and Teaching of Environmental Geosciences (CEREGE) in Aix-en-Provence, France. ‘I fit continues to fall down at this rate, in less than one millennium we will be in a critical (period).’

Dr. Thouveny is one of the principal investigators on the five-year EDIFICE project, which has been running since 2014. Together with his colleagues, he has been investigating the history of Earth’s magnetic field,including when it has reversed in the past, and when it might again.

Cosmic rays: Our planet’s magnetic field is predominantly created by the flow of liquid iron inside the core. It has always been a feature of our planet, but it has flipped in polarity repeatedly throughout Earth’s history. Each time it flips – up to 100 times in the past 20 million years, while the reversal can take about 1,000 years to complete – it leaves fossilized magnetization in rocks on Earth.

By taking cores – or columns – of sediments from the seafloor, like a long straw that can extend down up to 300 meters with the help of a drill, we can look back in time and see when these reversals occurred. Dr. Thouveny and his team looked at two particular forms of elements that allowed them to probe the history of our planet’s magnetic field in greater detail.

For a polarity reversal to occur, the magnetic field needs to weaken by about 90% to a threshold level. This process can take thousands of years, and during this time, the lack of a protective magnetic shield around our planet allows more cosmic rays – high-energy particles from elsewhere in the universe – to hit us.

When this happens, these cosmic rays collide with more and more atoms in our atmosphere, such as nitrogen and oxygen. This produces variants of elements called cosmogenic isotopes, such as carbon-14 and beryllium-10, which fall to the surface. And by studying the quantities of these in cores, we can see when polarity reversals took place.


Bringing Balance To The Universe: New Theory Could Explain Missing 95 Percent Of The Cosmos

Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses ‘negative mass’. If you were to push a negative mass, it would accelerate towards you. This astonishing new theory may also prove right a prediction that Einstein made 100 years ago.

Our current, widely recognised model of the Universe, called LambdaCDM, tells us nothing about what dark matter and dark energy are like physically. We only know about them because of the gravitational effects they have on other, observable matter.

This new model, published today in Astronomy and Astrophysics, by Dr Jamie Farnes from the Oxford e-Research Centre, Department of Engineering Science, offers a new explanation. Dr Farnes says: “We now think that both dark matter and dark energy can be unified into a fluid which possesses a type of ‘negative gravity’, repelling all other material around them. Although this matter is peculiar to us, it suggests that our cosmos is symmetrical in both positive and negative qualities.”

The existence of negative matter had previously been ruled out as it was thought this material would become less dense as the Universe expands, which runs contrary to our observations that show dark energy does not thin out over time. However, Dr Farnes’ research applies a ‘creation tensor’, which allows for negative masses to be continuously created. It demonstrates that when more and more negative masses are continually bursting into existence, this negative mass fluid does not dilute during the expansion of the cosmos. In fact, the fluid appears to be identical to dark energy.

Dr Farnes’s theory also provides the first correct predictions of the behaviour of dark matter halos. Most galaxies are rotating so rapidly they should be tearing themselves apart, which suggests that an invisible ‘halo’ of dark matter must be holding them together. The new research published today features a computer simulation of the properties of negative mass, which predicts the formation of dark matter halos just like the ones inferred by observations using modern radio telescopes.

Albert Einstein provided the first hint of the dark universe exactly 100 years ago, when he discovered a parameter in his equations known as the ‘cosmological constant’, which we now know to be synonymous with dark energy. Einstein famously called the cosmological constant his ‘biggest blunder’, although modern astrophysical observations prove that it is a real phenomenon. In notes dating back to 1918, Einstein described his cosmological constant, writing that “a modification of the theory is required such that ’empty space’ takes the role of gravitating negative masses which are distributed all over the interstellar space.” It is therefore possible that Einstein himself predicted a negative-mass-filled universe.

Dr Farnes says: “Previous approaches to combining dark energy and dark matter have attempted to modify Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which has turned out to be incredibly challenging. This new approach takes two old ideas that are known to be compatible with Einstein’s theory — negative masses and matter creation — and combines them together.

“The outcome seems rather beautiful: dark energy and dark matter can be unified into a single substance, with both effects being simply explainable as positive mass matter surfing on a sea of negative masses.”

Proof of Dr Farnes’s theory will come from tests performed with a cutting-edge radio telescope known as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an international endeavour to build the world’s largest telescope in which the University of Oxford is collaborating.

Dr Farnes adds: “There are still many theoretical issues and computational simulations to work through, and LambdaCDM has a nearly 30 year head start, but I’m looking forward to seeing whether this new extended version of LambdaCDM can accurately match other observational evidence of our cosmology. If real, it would suggest that the missing 95% of the cosmos had an aesthetic solution: we had forgotten to include a simple minus sign.”

COSINE-100 Experiment Investigates Dark Matter Mystery

Yale scientists are part of a new international experiment that challenges previous claims about the detection of non-luminous dark matter.

Astrophysical evidence suggests that the universe contains a large amount of non-luminous dark matter, yet no definite signal of it has been observed despite concerted efforts by many experimental groups. One exception to this is the long-debated claim by the DArk MAtter (DAMA) collaboration, which has reported positive observations of dark matter in its sodium-iodide detector array.

The new COSINE-100 experiment, based at an underground, dark-matter detector at the Yangyang Underground Laboratory in South Korea, has begun to explore DAMA’s claim. It is the first experiment sensitive enough to test DAMA and use the same target material of sodium iodide.

COSINE-100 has been recording data since 2016 and now has initial results that challenge the DAMA findings. Those findings are published online this week in the journal Nature.

“For the first time in 20 years, we have a chance to resolve the DAMA conundrum,” said Yale physics professor Reina Maruyama, who is co-spokesperson for COSINE-100 and co-author of the new study.

The first phase of COSINE-100’s work searches for dark matter by looking for an excess of signal over the expected background in the detector, with the right energy and characteristics. In this initial study, the researchers found no excess of signal in its data, putting DAMA’s annual modulation signal at odds with with results from other experiments. COSINE-100 scientists noted that it will take several years of data to fully confirm or refute DAMA’s results.

The COSINE-100 experiment uses eight low-background, thallium-doped sodium iodide crystals arranged in a 4-by-2 array, giving a total target mass of 106 kg. Each crystal is coupled by two photo sensors to measure the amount of energy deposited in the crystal.

The sodium iodide crystal assemblies are immersed in 2,200 L of light-emitting liquid, which allows for the identification and subsequent reduction of radioactive backgrounds observed by the crystals. The detector is contained within a nested arrangement of copper, lead, and plastic shielding components to reduce the background contribution from external radiation, as well as cosmic ray muons.

The COSINE-100 collaboration includes 50 scientists from the U.S., South Korea, the United Kingdom, Brazil, and Indonesia. The Yangyang Underground Laboratory, where the experiment is based, is operated by the Center for Underground Physics of the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) in South Korea.

“The initial results carve out a fair portion of the possible dark matter search region drawn by the DAMA signal. In other words, there is little room left for this claim to be from the dark matter interaction unless the dark matter model is significantly modified,” said Hyun Su Lee, the other co-spokesperson for COSINE-100, and an associate director of the Center for Underground Physics at IBS.


What does it mean to sponsor a veteran’s wreath? It means you will honor an American hero at one of more than 1,400 locations nationwide this year on Wreaths Across America Day. It is a day that is been set aside to lay wreaths at the places where we remember, honor, teach about our veterans.

We cannot do that without your support, though. Your sponsorship will ensure that a wreath is hand-crafted of all-American balsam and hand-tied with a red velvet bow here in Columbia Falls, Maine. It will then be sent to one of our participating locations, where a volunteer will place it on the marker of a fallen hero. That volunteer will then “say their name” to ensure that the legacy of duty, service, and sacrifice of that veteran is never forgotten.

So, what does it mean to sponsor a wreath? It means you have the opportunity to join a grateful nation in saying “thank you” to our veterans.

My two daughters are in scouts and will personally be placing wreaths at our local military cemetery. Your sponsored wreath will go to a central location and will be disseminated to more than 1400 military cemeteries nationwide. Each sponsored wreath is $15 and there is no limit to your order.

LIGO And Virgo Announce Four New Gravitational-Wave Detections

On Saturday, December 1, scientists attending the Gravitational Wave Physics and Astronomy Workshop in College Park, Maryland, presented new results from the National Science Foundation’s LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) and the European- based VIRGO gravitational-wave detector regarding their searches for coalescing cosmic objects, such as pairs of black holes and pairs of neutron stars. The LIGO and Virgo collaborations have now confidently detected gravitational waves from a total of 10 stellar-mass binary black hole mergers and one merger of neutron stars, which are the dense, spherical remains of stellar explosions. Six of the black hole merger events had been reported before, while four are newly announced.

From September 12, 2015, to January 19, 2016, during the first LIGO observing run since undergoing upgrades in a program called Advanced LIGO, gravitational waves from three binary black hole mergers were detected. The second observing run, which lasted from November 30, 2016, to August 25, 2017, yielded one binary neutron star merger and seven additional binary black hole mergers, including the four new gravitational-wave events being reported now. The new events are known as GW170729, GW170809, GW170818, and GW170823, in reference to the dates they were detected.

All of the events are included in a new catalog, also released Saturday, with some of the events breaking records. For instance, the new event GW170729, detected in the second observing run on July 29, 2017, is the most massive and distant gravitational-wave source ever observed. In this coalescence, which happened roughly 5 billion years ago, an equivalent energy of almost five solar masses was converted into gravitational radiation.

GW170814 was the first binary black hole merger measured by the three-detector network, and allowed for the first tests of gravitational-wave polarization (analogous to light polarization).

The event GW170817, detected three days after GW170814, represented the first time that gravitational waves were ever observed from the merger of a binary neutron star system. What’s more, this collision was seen in gravitational waves and light, marking an exciting new chapter in multi-messenger astronomy, in which cosmic objects are observed simultaneously in different forms of radiation.

One of the new events, GW170818, which was detected by the global network formed by the LIGO and Virgo observatories, was very precisely pinpointed in the sky. The position of the binary black holes, located 2.5 billion light-years from Earth, was identified in the sky with a precision of 39 square degrees. That makes it the next best localized gravitational-wave source after the GW170817 neutron star merger.

Caltech’s Albert Lazzarini, Deputy Director of the LIGO Laboratory, says “The release of four additional binary black hole mergers further informs us of the nature of the population of these binary systems in the universe and better constrains the event rate for these types of events.”

“In just one year, LIGO and VIRGO working together have dramatically advanced gravitational- wave science, and the rate of discovery suggests the most spectacular findings are yet to come,” says Denise Caldwell, Director of NSF’s Division of Physics. “The accomplishments of NSF’s LIGO and its international partners are a source of pride for the agency, and we expect even greater advances as LIGO’s sensitivity becomes better and better in the coming year.”

“The next observing run, starting in Spring 2019, should yield many more gravitational-wave candidates, and the science the community can accomplish will grow accordingly,” says David Shoemaker, spokesperson for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and senior research scientist in MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. “It’s an incredibly exciting time.”

“It is gratifying to see the new capabilities that become available through the addition of Advanced Virgo to the global network,” says Jo van den Brand of Nikhef (the Dutch National Institute for Subatomic Physics) and VU University Amsterdam, who is the spokesperson for the Virgo Collaboration. “Our greatly improved pointing precision will allow astronomers to rapidly find any other cosmic messengers emitted by the gravitational-wave sources.” The enhanced pointing capability of the LIGO-Virgo network is made possible by exploiting the time delays of the signal arrival at the different sites and the so-called antenna patterns of the interferometers.

“The new catalog is another proof of the exemplary international collaboration of the gravitational wave community and an asset for the forthcoming runs and upgrades” adds EGO Director Stavros Katsanevas.

The scientific papers describing these new findings, which are being initially published on the arXiv repository of electronic preprints, present detailed information in the form of a catalog of all the gravitational wave detections and candidate events of the two observing runs as well as describing the characteristics of the merging black hole population. Most notably, we find that almost all black holes formed from stars are lighter than 45 times the mass of the Sun. Thanks to more advanced data processing and better calibration of the instruments, the accuracy of the astrophysical parameters of the previously announced events increased considerably.

Laura Cadonati, Deputy Spokesperson for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, says “These new discoveries were only made possible through the tireless and carefully coordinated work of the detector commissioners at all three observatories, and the scientists around the world responsible for data quality and cleaning, searching for buried signals, and parameter estimation for each candidate — each a scientific specialty requiring enormous expertise and experience.”

UPDATE:Alaska Hit By More Than 190 Small Earthquakes Since Friday

More than small 190 earthquakes have hit parts of Alaska since Friday, when a 7.0-magnitude tremor knocked out power, ripped open roads and splintered buildings near Anchorage.


Since Friday, Alaska has experienced at least smaller 194 earthquakes, the US Geological Survey said early Saturday.

“These numbers can change by the minute, people can be expected to feel aftershocks for some time,” Seismologist Randy Baldwin told CNN. He said while they are described as aftershocks, they are still considered earthquakes.

The magnitude-7.0 earthquake sent residents scurrying for cover when it hit about 8:30 a.m. Friday local time 10 miles northeast of Anchorage.

‘This was a big one’

“It was very loud when it came,” Anchorage Mayor Ethan Berkowitz said. “It was very clear that this was something bigger than what we normally experience. We live in earthquake country … but this was a big one.”

The 7.0 earthquake was felt up to 400 miles outside of Anchorage, said Michael West, the Alaska state seismologist.

He called it the most significant earthquake in Anchorage since 1964.

“I think it’s safe to say that, not measured in magnitude or location but in terms of how strong the ground itself shook during the earthquake,” he said during a question-and-answer session at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

Two of the city’s main hospitals — Alaska Regional and Providence Alaska Medical Center — sustained damage but emergency rooms were open, according to hospital officials.

The Anchorage Police Department reported “major infrastructure damage” across the city.

Blair Braverman said she was staying in a hotel with her husband when the quake hit. She grew up in California and was familiar with earthquakes “but this was next-level,” she said.

“My husband sort of crawled across the room and threw himself on top of me and we crawled to the bathroom together and waited it out in the doorway and waited out the aftershocks.”

Roads buckled under passing cars and grocery store products tumbled from shelves. In court, panicked attorneys scurried under tables as a room rocked from side to side.

“It was absolutely terrifying,” Palmer resident Kristin Dossett told CNN.

It was the biggest quake she has felt in her 37 years in a region where temblors are common, Dossett said. One aftershock moved her piano a foot and half from the wall.
“It shook like I have never felt anything shake before,” she said.

“It just didn’t stop. It kept going and got louder and louder, and things just fell everywhere — everything off my dressers, off my bookcases, my kitchen cupboard. Just broken glass everywhere.”

Despite the chaos and confusion, Anchorage authorities said Friday night that no fatalities or serious injuries were reported. Authorities didn’t have firm figures on damage Friday night. Helicopters and drones were assessing infrastructure across the region.

The Anchorage School District canceled classes Monday and Tuesday to assess facility damage.

Seismologists predict more aftershocks

Gov. Bill Walker issued a disaster declaration as the US Geological Survey reported dozens of aftershocks. The largest, registering 5.7, was in the city of Anchorage. Seismologists predicted many more in the coming days and weeks.

Philip Peterson was in a multistory building in downtown Anchorage as the structure swayed and coffee mugs fell from tables and tiles from the ceiling.

“I just jumped under my desk and had to ride it out,” Peterson said.