I Am Excited to be Back; and For More Than One Reason

Hello ‘Science Of Cycles’ patrons. I’m coming off a surgery to remove a large tumor from my upper leg. What would have been a mostly unenthusiastic surgery, took a turn with a false-positive biopsy. As you have probably surmised, the final result is a benign and known as Lipoma. However, not all Lipoma’s are the same. They usually do not exhibit pain, of course mine did; and they usually grow at a very slow pace, mine seem to be in a hurry.

It appears the lump was entangled in muscle which was the cause of pain. As for the apparent faster than usual growth, it seems to have something to do with muscle entanglement. So to end this somewhat morbid explanation to my absence of articles, I am now resting reasonable well – and most importantly, able to return to my research and of bringing you the latest cutting edge news in the fields of Earth Science, Space Weather, and AstroPhysics which in fact affirms almost on a daily basis, the defining a symbiotic connection with our galaxy and universe. To date, the element which connects our little home to the seemingly vast universe is ‘charged particles’.

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Piggy Bank is empty…need your support as always to keep this machine running. I think you know I love what I do, but what’s really rewarding is when it loves me back. I attribute my thoughts to that of a healthy marriage. To give a hundred percent is a good thing, but many of us who are married, add a bit more if you have kids, have realized that sometimes a hundred percent is not enough. This is to say, even on those times you are absolutely right, it’s better to let your partner be right too.

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As we gain increased knowledge of the when-where-how of various charged particles, which encompasses such things as Black Holes, Supernovas, Gamma Ray Blasts, and Coronal Mass Ejections – we develop a cognizance lending itself to a measure of predictability. As a naturally directed outcome of evolving research – it is the “Science Of Cycles” which takes us to the next level of aptitude which could very well bring us to the cusp of an extraterrestrial neighborhood.

ps, I should mention one of the shortcomings of my healing process, is a curtailed period on the keyboard. Hence, moving on, and expect a Part II and most likely a Part III to this and coming articles.

There has been a whirlwind of activity over the last few weeks. The July 27th 2018 total lunar eclipse was visible in large parts of Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, and South America. Totality lasted for 103 minutes, making it the longest eclipse of the 21st century. Then, on August 11th a partial solar eclipse was visible from northern and Eastern Europe, northern parts of North America, and some northern and western locations in Asia, making it the most watched solar eclipse of 2018.

In Part II of this article, I will cover the 14 day prior and 14 day post events of July 27th total Lunar Eclipse, and the August 11th Partial Solar Eclipse – both of which my research has been able to identify a connection to significant earth changing events during these windows of opportunity. Events such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and extreme weather are among those which I will outline. Some outcomes are related to gravity, others with rapid temperature flux, and yet others with fluid displacement.

In Part III will encompass the incredible discoveries as it relates to Cosmic Rays, one of which is the identification of a ultra-high-energy cosmic ray, now labeled as the “OMG Particle”. Also, new information indicating a 30% increase of cosmic rays entering Earth’s atmosphere.

I hope this article refreshes your memory and enthusiasm that you can only find right here at ‘Science Of Cycles’ research and news service.

Stay Tuned…………

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Strong Earthquake Shakes Southern Costa Rica

A strong earthquake shook southern Costa Rica on Friday evening, toppling items from store shelves and knocking out power in places, but there were no immediate reports of injuries or major damage.

The U.S. Geological Survey reported that the quake had a magnitude of 6.1 and struck at 5:22 p.m. local time at a depth of about 12 miles. Its epicenter was about 12 miles north of the town of Golfito, near the Panama border.

Ellery Quesada, a journalist with Channel 9 in Palmar Norte, near the epicenter, told the Associated Press that the quake was felt strongly in the region.

“We have reports that in Puerto Jimenez the power was out and some power poles toppled,” Quesada said by phone, adding that aftershocks were felt in the minutes afterward.

The USGS recorded at least one aftershock, with a magnitude of 4.9.

Costa Rica’s National System for Monitoring Tsunamis ruled out a tsunami alert.

In Panama, civil defense officials said via Twitter that the quake was felt strongly in the border provinces of Chiriqui and Bocas del Toro, though there were no immediate reports of damage.

Panamanian media reported that it was felt at a stadium in the city of David, where a youth baseball championship game was being played, but play was not halted.

Strong, Deep Earthquake Shakes Area Off Indonesia; No Damage

A strong earthquake located far below the Earth’s surface shook an area in Indonesia’s Flores Sea, causing shaking on land but no damage, officials said.

The U.S. Geological Survey said the quake Friday night had a preliminary magnitude of 6.5 and was located 109 kilometers (68 miles) northwest of the village of Kampungbajo in central Indonesia at a depth of 539 kilometers (337 miles). Deep earthquakes generally cause less damage.

The national disaster agency said the earthquake was felt widely, including on Lombok Island where more than 400 died in a magnitude 7 quake earlier this month. It said no damage was reported and the quake didn’t have the potential to cause a tsunami.

Indonesia is prone to earthquakes because of its location on the “Ring of Fire,” an arc of volcanoes and fault lines in the Pacific Basin.

In December 2004, a massive magnitude 9.1 earthquake off Sumatra in western Indonesia triggered a tsunami that killed 230,000 people in a dozen countries.

Hurricane Lane To Strengthen South Of Hawaii While Generating Large Swells

In the distant footsteps of Hurricane Hector, Hurricane Lane is forecast to experience a similar evolution and take a similar path just south of the Big Island of Hawaii next week.

Hurricane Hector reached Category 4 status but passed well south of Hawaii during early August.

The size and orientation of Lane’s wind field, as well as exactly how far to the south Lane passes the islands, will determine the extent of impacts.

“At this time, we expect the center of Lane to pass about 200 miles south of the southernmost tip of the Big Island Tuesday evening Hawaii time,” according to AccuWeather Hurricane Expert Dan Kottlowski.

“Based on that track, impacts on at least the Big Island will not be much different than that was experienced with Hector two weeks earlier,” Kottlowski said.

The first impact on the waters surrounding the islands will be large swells spreading westward and northward later this weekend into next week.

Conditions can become dangerous for ocean vessels south of the islands as well as small craft attempting to navigate the inter-island channels next week.

Surf may become too rough and dangerous for most bathers and boarders along the south- and east-facing beaches of the islands by next week.

Breezy conditions with showers and gusty squalls are most likely on the southern and eastern part of the Big Island, but they may spread to the middle and western islands in the String of Pearls by the middle of next week.

“Lane is moving through a belt of warm water and is likely to remain within a zone of low wind shear and sufficiently moist air,” Kottlowski said, adding that these are factors that favor strengthening.

Wind shear is the increase in wind speed at increasing height in the atmosphere and/or the increase in straight-line wind speed over horizontal distance.

“Lane is likely to soon become a major hurricane and then maintain that status for several days while approaching Hawaii,” Kottlowski said.

Download the free AccuWeather app for the latest forecast and bulletins on Hurricane Lane.

Every hurricane, no matter how similar in strength, has some unique characteristics in size and shape. This is due to other weather systems in the nearby region as well as the extent of dry versus moist air and wind shear surrounding the hurricane.

If Lane becomes a compact hurricane and keeps its distance, conditions may not be so rough.

However, if Lane tracks closer to the islands than Hector, then conditions would trend more severe. Likewise, if Lane is more spread out, conditions could get a little worse over the islands, when compared to Hector.

Additional threats from tropical storms and hurricanes are likely into the autumn, due to a developing El Niño.

Because El Niño is a plume of warmer-than-average waters over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the warm water just south of Hawaii can sustain more hurricanes than average over the eastern and central Pacific and cause them to be stronger in nature.

On average, there are approximately five tropical systems per year over the central Pacific basin.

There is a chance that Lane may cross the international date line later in August, but the chance of the system being a hurricane at that time is remote.

Hector survived to cross the date line on Aug. 13 but did so as a tropical storm and not a hurricane. When a hurricane crosses the date line into the western Pacific, it becomes a typhoon.

Volcano Eruptions At Different Latitudes Impact Sea Surface Temperature Differently

Volcanic eruptions are among the most important natural causes of climate change, playing a leading role over the past millennium. Injections of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere reduce the incoming solar radiation, in turn cooling the surface. As a natural external forcing to the Earth’s climate system, the impact of volcanic aerosols on the climate has been of great concern to the scientific society and the public.

In recent years, scientists have found that there is a relationship between volcanic eruptions and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on reconstructions and model simulations, which is manifested in increased/decreased sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the equatorial Pacific. Since ENSO influences the global climate through atmospheric teleconnections, it is of great importance to understand the influence of volcanic eruptions on ENSO phase changes. Many studies have shown the phenomenon, but the reasons remain ambiguous.

Recently, Zuo Meng, a doctoral student from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, along with her mentors Prof. Zhou Tianjun and associate Prof. Man Wenmin, used the CESM Last Millennium Ensemble (LME) simulations, which has the largest ensemble of LM simulations, to investigate the impacts of northern, tropical and southern volcanic eruptions on the tropical Pacific SST. Analysis of the simulations indicates that the Pacific features a significant El Niño-like warm SST anomaly five to 10 months after northern and tropical eruptions, with the Niño3 index peaks at the winter of next year. Compared with northern eruptions, the warm SST anomaly is mainly confined to the eastern Pacific with a stronger intensity following tropical eruptions.

Following southern eruptions, the Pacific shows a weaker warming anomaly over the eastern Pacific, and the time at which the Niño3 index reaches its peak is about four months earlier than that after northern and tropical eruptions. They further advance the underlying mechanism: The shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) can explain the El Niño-like response to northern eruptions, which is not applicable for tropical or southern eruptions. Instead, the westerly anomaly in the western Pacific triggered by the ocean dynamical thermostat mechanism can explain the divergent SST responses following three types of eruptions.

“In contrast to previous works on the impacts of volcanic eruptions on SST, our results are based on the CESM-LME simulation. From a modeling perspective, ensemble simulations are the most helpful method to study volcano-forced responses. Most importantly, the different mechanisms of SST response to three types of eruptions can help us better understand the divergent formation processes of SST anomalies,” said first author Ms. Zuo Meng. “We hope the results are useful for the mitigation and adaptation of climate change after volcanic eruptions and the associated socioeconomic impacts, and can also provide insight for understanding future SST changes induced by large volcanic eruptions.”

Corresponding author Prof. Man Wenmi said, “Differences are also seen among different models. The difference may result from the uncertainties in the reconstruction of external forcing volcanic aerosol data, model bias, and also the initial condition of volcanic eruptions. We hope to deepen our understanding of the tropical Pacific responses to different volcanic forcing and the physical processes by using the VolMIP experiments which has defined a coordinated set of idealized volcanic perturbation experiments to be carried out in alignment with the CMIP6 protocol in the near future.”

Huge Cache of Magma Hidden Beneath California Supervolcano

Some 760,000 years ago, before our species took its first steps on Earth, an enormous eruption in what is now eastern California sent high-speed rivers of ash and lava across an area tens of miles across. The event ejected ash as far east as present-day Nebraska.

When the dust settled, six days later, the Long Valley supervolcano had disgorged about 1,400 times the volume of lava, gas and ash as the famous 1980 supereruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington.

And since 1978, Long Valley has shown signs of restlessness, with the depressed valley at the center of the volcano (the caldera) showing uplift, possibly from magma moving toward the surface. (Magma is the hot rock stored beneath a volcano that ultimately erupts onto land and is renamed lava.) Some scientists also argue that liquids from stored magma may be causing the uplift.

Now, scientists think they’ve figured out what’s happening in the bowels of this beast, finding evidence of a mother lode of magma — some 240 cubic miles (1,000 cubic kilometers) — stored like syrup between the rocks making up a giant stack of “pancakes.” That’s “enough melt [or magma] to support another supereruption” like the one 760,000 years ago, Ashton Flinders, of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Menlo Park, California, and colleagues wrote online Aug. 2 in the journal Geology.

While the new findings don’t solve the mystery of what’s causing the recent uplift, they do provide a more detailed picture than ever of Long Valley’s magma system, Flinders said.

Beneath the caldera
Until now, studies of Long Valley have fallen into one of two groups: They either imaged small features down to shallow depths (say, down to a few kilometers) or took take images of larger features down to much deeper levels.

“This has left a bit of a shadow zone in the midcrust, where the shallow studies can’t see and deeper studies tend to blur anything they do see,” Flinders told Live Science. “What we’re seeing isn’t new. It’s just that we’re seeing it at this level of detail for the very first time.”

To capture that detail, the researchers looked at how ambient noise (the seismic waves that constantly travel through Earth) moved through the area beneath the Long Valley Caldera. “We used physics-based computer simulations to model the way this energy travels through the volcano,” he said.

The simulation needed a lot of computer power, so the researchers borrowed time on the supercomputer called Pleiades at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. “To do this research on a single computer like you might have in your home would require that one computer to run for about 22 years,” Flinders said.

The resulting 3D image shows quite a trove of partly melted magma beneath the caldera.

But just because there’s enough magma for a mega explosion doesn’t mean that one is coming, he said.

“While it’s impossible to predict when an eruption might occur, we can say that an eruption from Long Valley in our lifetimes is extremely unlikely,” Flinders told Live Science.

To be safe, the USGS is monitoring Long Valley and the neighboring Mono-Inyo volcanic chain for any signs of unrest, he said.

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe Is On Its Way To The Sun

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. — NASA’s Parker Solar Probe is on its way to the Sun.

The spacecraft will transmit its first science observations in December, beginning a revolution in our understanding of the star that makes life on Earth possible.

“This mission truly marks humanity’s first visit to a star that will have implications not just here on Earth, but how we better understand our universe,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. “We’ve accomplished something that decades ago, lived solely in the realm of science fiction.”

Roughly the size of a small car, the spacecraft lifted off at 3:31 a.m. EDT Sunday on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket from Space Launch Complex-37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

The mission’s findings will help researchers improve their forecasts of space weather events, which have the potential to damage satellites and harm astronauts on orbit, disrupt radio communications and, at their most severe, overwhelm power grids.

During the first week of its journey, the spacecraft will deploy its high-gain antenna and magnetometer boom. It also will perform the first of a two-part deployment of its electric field antennas. Instrument testing will begin in early September and last approximately four weeks, after which Parker Solar Probe can begin science operations.

“T(his) launch was the culmination of six decades of scientific study and millions of hours of effort,” said project manager Andy Driesman, of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Maryland. “Now, Parker Solar Probe is operating normally and on its way to begin a seven-year mission of extreme science.”

Over the next two months, Parker Solar Probe will fly towards Venus, performing its first Venus gravity assist in early October – a maneuver a bit like a handbrake turn – that whips the spacecraft around the planet, using Venus’s gravity to trim the spacecraft’s orbit tighter around the Sun. This first flyby will place Parker Solar Probe in position in early November to fly as close as 15 million miles from the Sun – within the blazing solar atmosphere, known as the corona – closer than anything made by humanity has ever gone before.

Throughout its seven-year mission, Parker Solar Probe will make six more Venus flybys and 24 total passes by the Sun, journeying steadily closer to the Sun until it makes its closest approach at 3.8 million miles. At this point, the probe will be moving at roughly 430,000 miles per hour, setting the record for the fastest-moving object made by humanity.

Parker Solar Probe will set its sights on the corona to solve long-standing, foundational mysteries of our Sun. What is the secret of the scorching corona, which is more than 300 times hotter than the Sun’s surface, thousands of miles below? What drives the supersonic solar wind – the constant stream of solar material that blows through the entire solar system? And finally, what accelerates solar energetic particles, which can reach speeds up to more than half the speed of light as they rocket away from the Sun?

Scientists have sought these answers for more than 60 years, but the investigation requires sending a probe right through the unrelenting heat of the corona. Today, this is finally possible with cutting-edge thermal engineering advances that can protect the mission on its daring journey.

“Exploring the Sun’s corona with a spacecraft has been one of the hardest challenges for space exploration,” said Nicola Fox, project scientist at APL. “We’re finally going to be able to answer questions about the corona and solar wind raised by Gene Parker in 1958 – using a spacecraft that bears his name – and I can’t wait to find out what discoveries we make. The science will be remarkable.”

Parker Solar Probe carries four instrument suites designed to study magnetic fields, plasma and energetic particles, and capture images of the solar wind. The University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and Princeton University in New Jersey lead these investigations.

Parker Solar Probe is part of NASA’s Living with a Star program to explore aspects of the Sun-Earth system that directly affect life and society. The Living with a Star program is managed by the agency’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. APL designed and built, and operates the spacecraft.

The mission is named for Eugene Parker, the physicist who first theorized the existence of the solar wind in 1958. It’s the first NASA mission to be named for a living researcher.