BREAKING NEWS: New Study Shows Mantle Plume Movement Occurs More Rapidly Affecting Oceans and Climate

Still more confirmation of Battros 2012 equation identifying mantle plumes role in Earth’s core convection process. This new study also confirms mantle’s effect on ocean warming and specifically “ice caps.” This throws a hefty monkey-wrench into advocates of the 1988 made-up name global warming. I will attach my previous articles highlighting the connection to cyclical events occurring in our backyard “Milky Way” and our neighboring galaxies.

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New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles → Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

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Researchers have compiled the first global set of observations of the movement of the Earth’s mantle, the 3000-kilometer thick layer of hot silicate rocks between the crust and the core, and have found that it looks very different to predictions made by geologists over the past 30  a years.

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The team, from the University of Cambridge, used more than 2000 measurements taken from the world’s oceans in order to peer beneath the Earth’s crust and observe the chaotic nature of mantle flow. These movements have a huge influence on the way Earth looks today related to mountain formation, volcanic activity and earthquakes.

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The result of this new research is now published in the journal Nature Geoscience. Significant ramifications across many disciplines including the study of oceanic circulation and past climate change are now made manifest creating a bit of a shake-up in the global warming world.

The inventory of more than 2000 spot observations was determined by analyzing seismic surveys of the world’s oceans. By examining variations in the depth of the ocean floor, the researchers were able to construct a global database of the mantle’s movements.

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“These results will have wider reaching implications,” said Hoggard. “Considering the surface is moving much faster than we had previously thought, it could also affect things like the stability of ice caps and help us to understand past climate change.”

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Below are Recent Articles Reflecting
Battros Hypothesis Turned Theory

JUST IN: New High-Energy Sources of Gamma and Cosmic Rays Discovered

JUST IN: New Maps Chart Mantle Plumes Melting Greenland Glaciers

JUST IN: Scientists Beginning to Identify Signs That  Galactic Cycles are Analogous with Sun-Earth’s Circumvolution

BREAKING NEWS: Powerful Acquiescence of Battros ‘Equation’ in New Discovery – Charged Particle Acceleration

UPDATE: New Sources of Charged Particles Discovered

BREAKING NEWS: A Dramatic Galactic Explosion Arrived at Earth in 2012

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_science-of-cycles33

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BREAKING NEWS: Scientists Detect Unexpected Drop in the Magnetic Field of X-Ray Pulsars

By now, most of you have caught on to my documented hypothesis, now turning to theory, indicating all that we have learned (ongoing) about the Sun-Earth connection directs us to the ‘science of cycles’. This is to say – the better we understand the cycles (rhythm) of events, the better we can prepare for advantageous and disadvantaged events of the future.

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I will place some recent related articles below which I believe leaves a strong paper trail suggesting what we have learned about the cyclical events of the Sun-Earth connection, is mirrored in many ways to most if not all celestial orbs – whether they be pulsars, dwarfs, or galaxies. It is the ‘science of cycles’, which holds true today as it did a millennia or a mega-annum ago. Our ancestors collected and handed down some very valuable knowledge through history; science is just now able to verify it.

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A team of scientists has recently presented evidence of an unexpected drop in the observed magnetic field of an accreting pulsar designated V0332+53. This downturn, observed after the pulsar underwent a bright, three-month-long X-ray outburst, could yield important information on how the added mass settling on the surface of a neutron star affects its magnetic field. The findings are detailed in a paper published online on Apr. 26 in the arXiv journal.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

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V0332+53 is a gathering pulsar emitting X-ray radiation, with a spin period of 4.4 seconds. It orbits an early type companion star in an eccentric orbit of about 34 days. Significantly, this pulsar shows sporadic giant X-ray outbursts lasting several weeks, followed by years-long intervals of dormancy.

pulsar_radiation4

These X-ray outbursts were observed in 1989, between November 2004 and February 2005, and between June and September 2015. The latest outburst drew the attention of a team of researchers, led by Giancarlo Cusumano of the Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics in Palermo, Italy. Using the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT), both mounted on NASA’s Swift spacecraft, the astronomers were able to observe the pulsar in soft X-ray and high-energy bands.

By studying the results, the team detected a noteworthy drop in the observed magnetic field between the onset and the end of the outburst.

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The findings could be crucial for our understanding of the matter accretion processes in neutron stars and could provide new insights on pulsars’ X-ray outburst events. According to the research, the magnetic field of neutron star drives the accumulating matter along its field lines towards the magnetic polar caps, forming an appendage, where matter is followed up by radiative processes that produce X-rays.

FULL ARTICLE: CLICK HERE

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**Previous Articles Reflecting Battros Hypothesis Turned Theory

JUST IN: New High-Energy Sources of Gamma and Cosmic Rays Discovered

JUST IN: New Maps Chart Mantle Plumes Melting Greenland Glaciers

JUST IN: Scientists Beginning to Identify Signs That  Galactic Cycles are Analogous with Sun-Earth’s Circumvolution

BREAKING NEWS: Powerful Acquiescence of Battros ‘Equation’ in New Discovery – Charged Particle Acceleration

UPDATE: New Sources of Charged Particles Discovered

BREAKING NEWS: A Dramatic Galactic Explosion Arrived at Earth in 2012

 ________________

_science of cycles33

Mitch Battros and Science of Cycles Research Sponsorship Fundraiser – Be part of keeping ‘Science of Cycles’ alive and free. Your support is needed to keep this unique and valuable resource. Help sponsor us with your pledge as you see fit to the value you receive.          – CLICK HERE – 

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(NEW) Scientists Detect Unexpected Drop in the Magnetic Field of X-Ray Pulsar

A team of scientists has recently presented evidence of an unexpected drop in the observed magnetic field of an accreting pulsar designated V0332+53. This downturn, observed after the pulsar underwent a bright, three-month-long X-ray outburst, could yield important information on how the accreted mass settling on the surface of a neutron star affects its magnetic field. The findings are detailed in a paper published online on Apr. 26 in the arXiv journal.

pulsargraphic

V0332+53 is an accreting pulsar emitting X-ray radiation, with a spin period of 4.4 seconds. It orbits an early type companion star in an eccentric orbit of about 34 days. Significantly, this pulsar shows sporadic giant X-ray outbursts lasting several weeks, followed by years-long intervals of dormancy.

These X-ray outburst were observed in 1989, between November 2004 and February 2005, and between June and September 2015. The latest outburst drew the attention of a team of researchers, led by Giancarlo Cusumano of the Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics in Palermo, Italy. Using the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT), both mounted on NASA’s Swift spacecraft, the astronomers were able to observe the pulsar in soft X-ray and high-energy bands.

pulsar_radiation2

By studying the results, the team detected a noteworthy drop in the observed magnetic field between the onset and the end of the outburst.

“The comparison of the XRT profiles in the soft X-rays provides a hint against the hypothesis of a geometrical beam variation. If, on the other hand, the line-forming region is the same at equal luminosities, the observed difference in the cyclotron energy corresponds to a difference in the magnetic field of about 1.7 ×1011 G,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

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The findings could be crucial for our understanding of matter accretion processes in neutron stars and could provide new insights on pulsars’ X-ray outburst events. According to the research, the magnetic field of neutron star drives the accreting matter along its field lines towards the magnetic polar caps, forming an accretion column, where matter is followed up by radiative processes that produce X-rays.

Notably, the drop in the magnetic field, as described in the latest paper, wasn’t observed after previous outbursts. The researchers found out that although the total mass accreted at the end of the 2004-2005 and the 2015 outburst is similar, during the 2004-2005 event, a higher luminosity was reached earlier. They also concluded that decay of the magnetic field is not directly proportional to the total accreted mass.

pulsar_radiation4

Moreover, the scientists hypothesize that the cause of the significant decay of the magnetic field through accretion observed at V0332+53 could be due to “diamagnetic screening.”

“In this hypothesis, the accreting plasma builds up to form a magnetically confined mound, where the gas pressure balances the magnetic stresses. This would produce, as an overall effect, a distortion of the field lines observed as a decrease of the field component along the accretion column,” the paper reads.

However, as the team noted, the lack of coverage in the first ten days of the outburst doesn’t allow them to confirm this theory.

BREAKING NEWS: Powerful Acquiescence of Battros ‘Equation’ in New Discovery – Charged Particle Acceleration

Mitch_and_Crew_medd

“If talking about fronts and shock-waves and temperature differentials, it sounds a lot like the weather on Earth, that’s because there is not much difference as far as the physics involved. “Technically, we observe the same features in space that we do on Earth,” says Dasadia Sarthak, lead author of this new research and published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. “This area has been studied extensively before at small scales, but few had done the work to discover what I found here at such big scales.”

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles and Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

new_equation 2012_m

Already, scientists are targeting shock-waves in galaxy clusters to study dark matter, the magnetic field surrounding the cluster, charged particle acceleration and energy transfer in the intra-cluster medium. “This could open a door, where people can do a number of different studies based on what I have found,” says Dasadia Sarthak, from the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH).

abell 665

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The discovery occurred in the merging galaxy cluster ‘Abell 655 by using observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. It is the second-strongest merging shock-wave within a galaxy cluster ever observed generating excitement that is opening doors to further scientific exploration.

Chandra_X-ray_Observatory

This uncommon form of hot plasma discharge ejecting waves of charged particles provides unique opportunities to study this high-energy phenomena in the intra-cluster medium between galaxies.

In only 10 days, Dasadia’s research was accepted for publication by The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Dasadia recently received one year of research support from the Alabama EPSCoR Graduate Research Scholars Program (ALEPSCoR). He also gave an oral presentation on his research in August at the International Astronomical Union (IAU) General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii.

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The universe is populated with galaxy clusters that are relaxed and unrelaxed, Dasadia says. The relaxed ones are mellow — they’ve been around a lot longer, have seen lots of past mergers and really aren’t dynamically active. It’s the unrelaxed clusters like Abell 665 that are good candidates to study merger features such as shocks and turbulence.

When the undefined boundaries of massive clusters of galaxies 3 million light-years across are drawn together in a slow-motion collision, their cold cores and surrounding hot gases are disrupted into shock waves and gas fronts of various temperatures.

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“When two cold cores collide, they may create a shock of heated gas,” Dasadia says. “Such mergers are actually among the most energetic events in the universe, other than the Big Bang itself.”

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If talking about fronts and shock waves and temperature differentials sounds a lot like the weather on Earth, Dasadia says that’s because there is not much difference as far as the physics involved.

“Technically, we observe the same features in space that we do on Earth,” he says. “This area has been studied extensively before at small scales, but few had done the work to discover what I found here at such big scales.”

“It amazes me how long it takes for this information to even reach the Earth,” Dasadia says. “Then I am also amazed by our technology, by how much we have advanced in developing the telescopes and equipment it takes to be able to observe and study these interactions.”

_science of cycles33

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Found: Clues About Volcanoes Under Ice On Ancient Mars

Volcanoes erupted beneath an ice sheet on Mars billions of years ago, far from any ice sheet on the Red Planet today, new evidence from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter suggests.

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The research about these volcanoes helps show there was extensive ice on ancient Mars. It also adds information about an environment combining heat and moisture, which could have provided favorable conditions for microbial life.

Sheridan Ackiss of Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, and collaborators used the orbiter’s mineral-mapping spectrometer to investigate surface composition in an oddly textured region of southern Mars called “Sisyphi Montes.” The region is studded with flat-topped mountains. Other researchers previously noted these domes’ similarity in shape to volcanoes on Earth that erupted underneath ice.

“Rocks tell stories. Studying the rocks can show how the volcano formed or how it was changed over time,” Ackiss said. “I wanted to learn what story the rocks on these volcanoes were telling.”

When a volcano begins erupting beneath a sheet of ice on Earth, the rapidly generated steam typically leads to explosions that punch through the ice and propel ash high into the sky. For example, the 2010 eruption of ice-covered Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland lofted ash that disrupted air travel across Europe for about a week.

Characteristic minerals resulting from such subglacial volcanism on Earth include zeolites, sulfates and clays. Those are just what the new research has detected at some flat-topped mountains in the Sisyphi Montes region examined with the spacecraft’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), providing resolution of about 60 feet (18 meters) per pixel.

“We wouldn’t have been able to do this without the high resolution of CRISM,” Ackiss said.

The Sisyphi Montes region extends from about 55 degrees to 75 degrees south latitude. Some of the sites that have shapes and compositions consistent with volcanic eruptions beneath an ice sheet are about 1,000 miles (about 1,600 kilometers) from the current south polar ice cap of Mars. The cap now has a diameter of about 220 miles (about 350 kilometers).

Experiments Shine Light On Exotic Cosmic Rays

The Earth is under constant bombardment by subatomic particles called cosmic rays, including some, known as ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, which pack much more punch than the world’s most powerful particle accelerators. Fortunately, Earth’s atmosphere protects us by dissipating most of that energy before it reaches the ground.

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But where do these ultrafast cosmic rays come from, and how are they accelerated to such high energies—one quadrillion (1015) electron volts and more? Scientists have been searching the heavens for answers to those questions for many decades, yet much about the origin and nature of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays remains a mystery.

Now an international team of researchers is trying a different approach. Instead of looking deep into the universe with telescopes, or trying to capture the debris from atmospheric cosmic-ray collisions with particle detectors, they’re trying to duplicate the actual conditions that could contribute to cosmic-ray acceleration right here on Earth, in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber.

In a NIF discovery science campaign conducted by the Astrophysical Collisionless Shock Experiments with Lasers (ACSEL) collaboration, the researchers are carrying out a series of experiments aimed at understanding the possible role of collisionless shocks and related intergalactic magnetic fields in cosmic-ray acceleration.

In collisionless shocks, the charged particles in a plasma (a medium consisting of freely moving ions and free electrons) pass by largely without colliding with each other; such shocks occur in many astrophysical phenomena including supernova remnants, gamma-ray bursts and jets from active galactic nuclei. NIF is the only facility capable of creating plasmas with sufficiently high density (greater than 1020 particles per cubic centimeter), high flow velocity (greater than 1,000 kilometers per second) and high temperature (greater than 1,000 electron volts) to conduct these experiments. In the scaled NIF experiments, the collisional mean free path—the average distance traveled by a particle between collisions with other particles—is much larger than the experimental volume, yet the collisionless shocks created are similar to the astrophysical conditions observed in space.

The two most recent ACSEL experiments studied high-speed collisionless shock formation by firing more than 125 NIF beams at targets composed of two plastic foils facing each other. The associated magnetic field was backlighted, or probed, by protons from a tiny laser-irradiated sphere known as an “exploding pusher” target filled with a mixture of deuterium and helium-3 (D3He).

This series of experiments was the first to use the D3He-filled exploding pusher, which was developed in collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Plasma Science and Fusion Center, as the proton backlighter for a physics experiment on NIF.

ASKAP Test Finds “Monster” Black Hole

Imagine trying on new pair of spectacles and when glancing around to test them you spot a monster—that’s exactly what happened when the ASKAP antennas were turned towards a group of three merging galaxies 1.8 billion light years away.

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The monster concerned is a supermassive black hole with a mass 3 billion times that of the Sun.

All galaxies are believed to house a huge black hole at their centre, but this one is gigantic by cosmic standards.

It is 750 times bigger than the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way—which is a modest 4 million solar masses.

Black holes grow by drawing in material including other black holes that venture too close, and in this case the black holes from the three galaxies have merged.

Dr Lisa Harvey-Smith from CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science and her team knew of a strong source of radiowaves, known as an astrophysical maser, in the group and pointed the array of antennas toward it.

The results were checked by the Australia Telescope Compact Array telescope at Narrabri which found the gas forming the maser was moving at around 600 kilometres per second, or around 500 times the speed of a rifle cartridge.

Knowing the speed of the gas they were able to directly measure the mass of the black hole that was causing the gas to swirl.

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ASKAP (the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder) is the precursor to the Square Kilometer Array and is being built in the Murchison.

When finished ASKAP will have 36 identical antennas, each 12m in diameter that will work together as a single instrument.

“The full 36 antennas will be online by 2018,” Dr Harvey-Smith says.

“We currently have nine antennas doing commissioning and testing, and our early science program will begin when we have 12 antennas ready.”

Dr George Heald who leads the CSIRO Astrophysics group in Perth says ASKAP’s advantage lies in sporting CSIRO’s own receiver technology called Phased Array Feed (PAF), which is like a digital camera for use in radio astronomy.

“It allows us to map a huge area of the sky a lot faster than by using a traditional radio telescope,” he says.

Perth team member Aidan Hotan says that most of the science planned for ASKAP has to do with understanding the structure and composition of the universe out to greater distances and over wider areas than ever before.