Detection Of Gravitational Waves Would Open New Window On Universe

The first-ever detection of gravitational waves, which scientists could announce Thursday, would open a new window on the universe and its most violent phenomena.

anartistscon

Scientists will hold a press conference Thursday to discuss the latest in their hunt for these waves, whose existence Albert Einstein predicted in his theory of general relativity 100 years ago, according to a statement from the National Science Foundation, which has funded the research.

Scientists from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) who have been working on the detection of these waves for years will participate.

Press conferences are also simultaneously scheduled at Paris’s National Center for Science Research (CNRS) and also in London.

The announcement of a press conference revived rumors that have been circulating in the scientific community for months that the LIGO team may have indeed directly detected gravitational waves for the first time.

These waves are produced by disturbances in the fabric of space and time when a massive object moves, like a black hole or a neutron star.

Einstein theorized that they would appear like ripples in a pond that form when a stone is thrown in the water, or like a net that bows under the weight of an object placed within—with the net serving as a metaphor for the bending of space-time.

According to the rumors, the team may have observed the collision of two black holes and their fusion—leading to the detection of gravitational waves.

Science magazine cited Clifford Burgess, a physicist at McMaster University in Canada and also a member of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, as saying he deemed the rumors credible, even though he had not yet seen any documentation from LIGO.

The ability to observe these gravitational waves would offer astronomer and physicists a new look at the most mysterious workings of the universe, including the fusion of neutron stars and the behaviors of black holes, which are often found in the centers of galaxies.

“The driving force of the universe is gravity,” said Tuck Stebbins, Gravitational Astrophysics Lab Chief at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.

“These waves are streaming to you all the time and if you could see them, you could see back to the first one trillionth of a second of the Big Bang,” he told AFP.
“There is no other way for humanity to see the origin of the universe.”

Stebbins said he believes “we stand at a threshold of a revolutionary period in our understanding, our view of the universe.”

The LIGO detectors—one in Washington and one in Louisiana—can “measure changes of spacetime at the level of 1/1000 diameter of a proton,” he added.

Catherine Man, an astronomer at the Cote d’Azur Observatory in France, said the detection of these waves—if confirmed—would allow astronomers to probe the interior of stars and perhaps resolve the mystery of gamma rays, which are among the most powerful explosions in the universe and whose cause remains poorly understood.

“Now we are no longer observing the universe with telescopes using ultraviolet light or visible light but we are listening to the noises produced by the effects of the gravitation of celestial bodies on the fabric of space-time, which could come from stars or black holes,” she told AFP.

“And since the star or black hole does not stop these waves, which move at the speed of light, they come right to us and we can therefore make models… to distinguish and detect their signatures.”

Previously, two Princeton scientists won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1993 for discovering a new type of pulsar that offered indirect proof of the existence of gravitational waves.

The LIGO team is collaborating with a French-Italian team on another detector, called VIRGO, that should become operational soon.

Earth-like Planets Have Earth-like Interiors

Every school kid learns the basic structure of Earth: a thin outer crust, a thick mantle, and a Mars-sized core. But is this structure universal? Will rocky exoplanets orbiting other stars have the same three layers? New research suggests that the answer is yes — they will have interiors very similar to Earth.

planets

“We wanted to see how Earth-like these rocky planets are. It turns out they are very Earth-like,” says lead author Li Zeng of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).

To reach this conclusion Zeng and his co-authors applied a computer model known as the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM), which is the standard model for Earth’s interior. They adjusted it to accommodate different masses and compositions, and applied it to six known rocky exoplanets with well-measured masses and physical sizes.

They found that the other planets, despite their differences from Earth, all should have a nickel/iron core containing about 30 percent of the planet’s mass. In comparison, about a third of Earth’s mass is in its core. The remainder of each planet would be mantle and crust, just as with Earth.

“We’ve only understood Earth’s structure for the past hundred years. Now we can calculate the structures of planets orbiting other stars, even though we can’t visit them,” adds Zeng.

The new code also can be applied to smaller, icier worlds like the moons and dwarf planets in the outer solar system. For example, by plugging in the mass and size of Pluto, the team finds that Pluto is about one-third ice (mostly water ice but also ammonia and methane ices).

The model assumes that distant exoplanets have chemical compositions similar to Earth. This is reasonable based on the relevant abundances of key chemical elements like iron, magnesium, silicon, and oxygen in nearby systems. However, planets forming in more or less metal-rich regions of the galaxy could show different interior structures. The team expects to explore these questions in future research.

My Daughter’s Apex Fun Run

My Daughter “Alexa” is participating in her schools Apex Fun Run which is set up for each individual grade (she is now in 2nd grade) to run at least 36 laps. This is her schools only fundraiser for the year. You can sponsor her by making a one-time single donation of any amount – or you can sponsor her “per lap” she completes. Ex: $1 per lap = $35 or $2 per lap = $70. Any way you choose the school wins.

sophia_dad_alexa-i'm_the_runner

Go to the following Apex link, then put in this code: UGVGJOQ It is unique for Alexa Battros. Fill out the form, then select if it is “per lap” or “flat donation”. You can write a personal note to Alexa if you wish, and lastly, you can select “pay now” (usually for flat donation) or “pay later” (usually for per-lap donation). APEX FUN RUN – http://apexfunrun.com

ApexFunRun-Full Color Logo

Here’s the kicker – a good thing they limit sponsorship to the limit of 36 laps, because my little go getter ran 51 laps her first year and 53 laps her second year. Yes, she is the competitive type. Of course I’d like to say where she got it J – but I would say she has outperformed me at every age.

Newly Discovered Unknown Sources of Gamma Rays Found in Center of Milky Way

Using new statistical analysis methods, two research teams independently found that the gamma ray signals are uncharacteristic of those expected from dark matter. One team is based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the second team based from the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Millisecond_Pulsar_with_Magnetic_Field_Structure_

Published this week in the journal Physical Review Letters, Mariangela Lisanti, an assistant professor of physics at Princeton said: “Our analysis suggests that what we are seeing is evidence for a new astrophysical source of gamma rays at the center of the galaxy. This is a very complicated region of the sky and there are other astrophysical signals that could be confused with dark matter signals.”

black-hole34

Exactly what these new sources are is unknown, Lisanti said, but one possibility is that they are very old, rapidly rotating stars known as millisecond pulsars. She said it would be possible to explore the source of the gamma rays using other types of sky surveys involving telescopes that detect radio frequencies.

Douglas Finkbeiner, a professor of astronomy and physics at Harvard University who was not directly involved in the current study, said that although the finding complicates the search for dark matter, it leads to other areas of discovery. “Our job as astrophysicists is to characterize what we see in the universe, not get some predetermined, wished-for outcome. Of course it would be great to find dark matter, but just figuring out what is going on and making new discoveries is very exciting.”

new_equation 2012

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles  Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

According to Christoph Weniger from the University of Amsterdam and lead author of the Netherlands-based study, the finding is a win-win situation: “Either we find hundreds or thousands of millisecond pulsars in the upcoming decade, shedding light on the history of the Milky Way, or we find nothing. In the latter case, a dark matter explanation for the gamma ray excess will become much more obvious.”

_____________________________

sophia_dad_alexa-i'm_the_runner

My Daughter “Alexa” is participating in her schools Apex Fun Run which is set up for each individual grade (she is now in 2nd grade) to run at least 36 laps. This is her schools only fundraiser for the year. You can sponsor her by making a one-time single donation of any amount – or you can sponsor her “per lap” she completes. Ex: $1 per lap = $35 or $2 per lap = $70. Any way you choose the school wins.

ApexFunRun-Full Color Logo

Go to the following Apex link, then put in this code: UGVGJOQ It is unique for Alexa Battros. Fill out the form, then select if it is “per lap” or “flat donation”. You can write a personal note to Alexa if you wish, and lastly, you can select “pay now” (usually for flat donation) or “pay later” (usually for per-lap donation). APEX FUN RUN – http://apexfunrun.com

Here’s the kicker – a good thing they limit sponsorship to the limit of 36 laps, because my little go getter ran 51 laps her first year and 53 laps her second year. Yes, she is the competitive type. Of course I’d like to say where she got it J – but I would say she has outperformed me at every age.

__________________________________

science of cycles banner32Introduction to Science of Cycles Website and News Service

Our introductory price is only $19.95 for a full one year membership
If the banner does not open – Click Here

no-paypal-account-needed_sm

We are always in need of additional funds.
 Please consider sponsoring our service

paypal-donate_button_sm

If the banner does not open – Click Here

 

 

 

 

If the banner does not open, use this link:

 

 

New Confirmation Galactic Cosmic Rays Have Increased Intensity

Further confirmation advocating my research related to external sources outside our solar system is synchronous to our interplanetary cycles. The Sun-Earth connection, analogous to its 11, 22 year cycle reacts in congruous with larger galactic cycles of 500, 1,000, 5,000, 44,000, 100,000 (Centrennium) and beyond into (Megaannus) 1,000,000 year cycles.

plate margins

Only the most recent research has been able to identify such events as a result of almost magical new hardware of satellites, telescopes, spacecraft, and of course the software that goes with it. You might remember an article I wrote almost 2 years ago, as I reported to you what my sources directly connected to international space agencies, had told to me. It went something like this: “New information is coming in so fast, and is challenging our known formulas, templates, equations etc, we had to shut it down (figuratively) and begin our unsettling task of creating a new paradigm.”

As our brilliant, yet mostly isolated scientific disciplines, have begun to slowly unwind data that reaches memory sizes beyond Terabytes, beyond Petabytes, beyond Exabytes, now beyond Zettabytes, and currently is filling Yottabytes. As the slow untangling of new insights unfold, we can now see a direct connection to cyclical patterns far beyond our solar system borders and into our home galaxy Milky Way.

Memory Scale: 1 yottabyte = 1024 zettabytes = 1048576 exabytes = 1073741824 petabytes = 1099511627776 terabytes = 1125899906842624 gigabytes.

New information collected from neutron monitor measurements from the University of Oulu Cosmic Ray Station intensification of cosmic rays is making itself felt not only over the poles, but also over lower latitudes where Earth’s magnetic field provides a greater degree of protection against deep space radiation.
Earth’s magnetic field is currently weakening more rapidly. Data from the SWARM satellites have shown the field is starting to weaken faster than in the past. Previously, researchers estimated the field was weakening about 5 percent per century, but the new data revealed the field is actually weakening at 5 percent per decade, or 10 times faster than thought.

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)
In a recent study using neutron monitor measurements from the University of Oulu Cosmic Ray Station, show an accelerated amount of cosmic rays are now hitting lower latitudes likely due to a weakened magnetic field. This is cause for alert as radiation measurements have increased which could have a long-lasting effect on airline ceilings.

More on this research coming this week…………….

___________________

 

 

Earthquakes On Thrust Faults Can Spread 10 Times Farther To A Second Nearby Thrust Fault Than Previously Thought

A team of researchers, including one from the University of California, Riverside, has discovered that earthquake ruptures can jump much further than previously thought, a finding that could have severe implications on the Los Angeles area and other regions in the world.

quake 1jpg

The scientists found that an earthquake that initiates on one thrust fault can spread 10 times farther than previously thought to a second nearby thrust fault, vastly expanding the possible range of “earthquake doublets,” or double earthquakes.

That could mean in areas such as Los Angeles, where there are multiple thrust faults close to each other, an earthquake from one thrust fault could spread to another fault, creating twice as much devastation.

One potential bad scenario involves a single earthquake spreading between the Puente Hills thrust fault, which runs under downtown Los Angeles, and the Sierra Madre thrust fault, located close to Pasadena, said Gareth Funning, an associate professor of earth sciences at UC Riverside, and a co-author of a paper published online today (Feb. 8, 2016) about the research in the journal Nature Geoscience.

Other susceptible areas where there are multiple thrust faults are in close proximity include the Ventura, Calif. area, the Middle East, particularly Tehran, Iran, and the front of the Himalayas, in countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nepal.

The researchers studied a 1997 earthquake in Pakistan, originally reported as a magnitude 7.1 event, showing that it was in fact composed of two ‘subevents’—a magnitude 7.0 earthquake, that was followed 19 seconds later by a magnitude 6.8 event, located 50 kilometers (30 miles) to the southeast.

Funning considers the two earthquakes as subevents of one ‘mainshock,’ as opposed to the second earthquake being an aftershock, because they happened so close together in time and were so similar in size. There were many aftershocks in the following minutes and hours, but most of them were much smaller.

The scientists used satellite radar images, precise earthquake locations, modeling and back projection of seismic radiation to prove the seismic waves from the first subevent caused the second to initiate, effectively ‘jumping’ the 50 kilometer distance between the two. Scientists previously thought an earthquake could only leap up to five kilometers.

The finding has implications for seismic hazard forecasts developed by the United States Geological Survey. The current forecast model does not include the possibility of a similar double earthquake on the thrust faults in the Los Angeles area.

“This is another thing to worry about,” Funning said. “The probability of this happening in Los Angeles is probably pretty low, but it doesn’t mean it can’t happen.”
Funning started work on the paper about 12 years ago as a graduate student at the University of Oxford. He was the first to find the satellite data for the earthquakes in Pakistan, which occurred in a largely unpopulated area, and notice they occurred close together in space and time.

After dropping the work for several years, he, along with lead author Ed Nissen of the Colorado School of Mines, picked it up about three to four years ago, in part because of the possible implications for the Los Angeles area, which has a similar plate boundary, with similar faults, similar distances apart as the region in Pakistan where the 1997 earthquake doublet occurred.

Thrust faults happen when one layer of rock is pushed up over another, often older, layer of rock by compressional forces. Thrust faults came to the attention of Californians after the 1994 Northridge earthquake, about 20 miles northwest of Los Angeles, which occurred on a thrust fault.

Thrust faults are not as well understood by scientists as strike-slip faults, such as the San Andreas, in part because they are not as visible in the landscape, and do not preserve evidence for past earthquakes as well.

Researchers Find New Cause of Strong Earthquakes

A geologic event known as diking can cause strong earthquakes—with a magnitude between 6 and 7, according to an international research team.

quake

Diking can occur all over the world but most often occurs in areas where the Earth’s tectonic plates are moving apart, such as Iceland, Hawaii and parts of Africa in the East African Rift System. As plates spread apart, magma from beneath the Earth’s surface rises into the space, forming vertical magma intrusions, known as dikes. The dike pushes on the surrounding rocks, creating strain.

“Diking is a known phenomenon, but it has not been observed by geophysical techniques often,” said Christelle Wauthier, assistant professor of geosciences, Penn State who led the study. “We know it’s linked with rift opening and it has implications on plate tectonics. Here, we see that it also could pose hazards to nearby communities.”
The team investigated ties between two natural disasters from 2002 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, East African Rift System. On Jan. 17, the Nyiragongo volcano erupted, killing more than 100 people and leaving more than 100,000 people homeless. Eight months later a magnitude 6.2 earthquake struck the town of Kalehe, which is 12 miles from the Nyiragongo volcano. Several people died during the Oct. 24 earthquake, and Kalehe was inundated with water from nearby Lake Kivu.

“The Kalehe earthquake was the largest recorded in the Lake Kivu area, and we wanted to find out whether it was coincidence that, eight months before the earthquake, Nyiragongo erupted,” said Wauthier.

The researchers used a remote sensing technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, to measure changes to the Earth’s surface before and after both natural disasters.

“This technique produces ground surface deformation maps. Then, you can invert those deformation maps to find a source that could explain the observed deformation. For the deformation observed in January 2002, we found that the most likely explanation, or best-fitting model, was a 12-mile diking intrusion in between Nyiragongo and Kalehe,” said Wauthier.

The researchers used the same technique for the October 2002 magnitude 6.2 earthquake, analyzing seismicity in addition to ground-deformation changes. They found that there was a fault on the border of the East African Rift System that slipped, triggering the earthquake.

“We were able to identify the type of fault that slipped, and we also had the best-fitting model for the dike intrusion,” said Wauthier. “Knowing both of those, we performed a Coulomb stress-change analysis and found that the January 2002 dike could have induced the October 2002 earthquake.”

Coulomb stress-change analysis is a modeling technique that calculates the stress changes induced by a deformation source at potential receiver faults throughout a region. If the Coulomb stress changes are positive, it means that the source is bringing the receiver fault closer to failure—closer to slipping and generating an earthquake. This type of analysis is regularly applied to assess whether an earthquake in one region could trigger a secondary earthquake nearby.

The researchers hypothesized that the dike opening pushed outward against the adjacent rocks. These rocks became strained and passed stress to rocks adjacent to them, accumulating stress on rocks on a fault in the Kalehe area. The dike brought this fault closer to failure and, eight months later, a small stress perturbation could have triggered the start of the magnitude 6.2 earthquake.

“We’ve known that every time magma flows through the Earth’s crust, you create stress and generate seismicity,” said Wauthier. “But these are normally very low magnitude earthquakes. This study suggests that a diking event has the potential to lead to a large earthquake,” said Wauthier.

The researchers report their findings in the current issue of Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.