JUST IN: New Study Suggest Supervolcanoes Connected via Batholithic Flows

A new study by University of Wyoming researchers shows isotopic variations across the batholith indicate the magma formed by melting of multiple rock sources that rose through multiple conduits that appear to connect several supervolcanoes such as the Yellowstone caldera. Geophysical monitoring of the ground above active supervolcanoes shows that it rises and falls as magma moves beneath the surface of the Earth.

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Silica-rich magmas – like those in the Yellowstone region and along the western margin of North and South America – can erupt violently and explosively, throwing vast quantities of ash into the air, followed by slower flows of glassy, viscous magma. But, what do the subterranean magma chambers look like, and where does the magma originate? Those questions cannot be answered directly at modern, active volcanoes.

This study was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and its findings are outlined in a paper published in the June issue of American Mineralogist, the journal of the Mineralogical Society of America. University of Wyoming researchers suggests they can go back into the past to study the solidified magma chambers where erosion has removed the overlying rock, exposing granite underpinnings.

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“Every geology student is taught that the present is the key to the past,” says Carol Frost, director of the NSF’s Division of Earth Sciences, and a professor in the Department of Geology and Geophysics. “In this study, we used the record from the past to understand what is happening in modern magma chambers.”

One such large granite body, the 2.62 billion-year-old Wyoming batholith, extends more than 125 miles across central Wyoming. UW master’s degree student Davin Bagdonas, traversed  Granite Mountain, also Shirley and Laramie mountains to examine the body, finding remarkable uniformity, with similar biotite granite throughout.

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This homogeneity indicates the crystallizing magma was generally well-mixed. However, more subtle isotopic variations across the batholith show the magma formed by melting of multiple rock sources that rose through multiple conduits, and homogenization is yet to be determined.

“Study of the products of supervolcanoes and their possible batholithic counterparts at depth are a vibrant, controversial area of research,” says Brad Singer, professor in the Department of Geoscience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He says research by Frost and her colleagues’ offers an  innovative perspective gleaned from the ancient Wyoming batholith, suggesting that it is the frozen portion of a vast magma system that could have fed supervolcanoes like those which erupted in northern Chile-southern Bolivia during the last 10 million years.

Andean supervolcanos

“The possibility of such a connection, while intriguing, does raise questions.” The high silica and potassium contents of the Wyoming granites differ from the bulk magma compositions erupted by these huge Andean supervolcanos. “This paper will certainly provoke a deeper look into how ancient Archean granites can be used to leverage understanding of the ‘volcanic-plutonic connection’ at supervolcanoes.”

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UPDATE: More News on Magnetic Field – Galaxy Coming

This new finding is yet another strong affirmation towards Battros 2012 ‘Equation’. This study displays a distinct connection between celestial events and our galaxy Milky Way. My Equation implements a natural systemic process of repeated cyclical events throughout its life. This is the essence of my current research I have named the “Science of Cycles”.

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles and Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

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An international team of astronomers has discovered a possible connection between the magnetic fields of supernova remnants and that of our own Milky Way Galaxy. The study, recently published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, found that the orientation of supernova remnants can help astronomers understand the nature and shape of the magnetic field of the Milky Way Galaxy itself.

“In supernova explosions, charged particles are accelerated close to the speed-of-light and then speed through space as cosmic rays, some finding their way to Earth”, says Jennifer West, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, lead author of the study. The Earth is constantly being bombarded by trillions of these cosmic rays, with some of the highest energy ones coming from supernovae and supernova remnants. These can interfere with electronic equipment and be hazardous to people, particularly people flying in aircraft or living in space.

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Magnetic fields play important roles in many astrophysical processes such as solar flares, stellar evolution, galaxy dynamics, and even the evolution of the universe. They also play a very important role in the dynamics of supernova remnants, which represent some of the most extreme environments in the universe, with conditions unlike anything we can duplicate on Earth.

Supernova remnants are what’s left after stars explode, effectively blowing giant bubbles in the interstellar medium. Many supernova remnants are double-lobed astronomical objects that look like two facing hamburger buns, with the invisible “burger” axes aligned with local magnetic fields.

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For this study, the researchers examined archival radio images of every known supernova remnant in the galaxy to compile a complete sample of objects with this double-lobed shape. Observations show that these axes point in different directions, astronomers were not sure if the orientation is random, caused by local effects, or whether the direction may be influenced by the Milky Way Galaxy’s own magnetic field. By comparing the orientation of the supernova remnants in the images with models based on simulations of the galaxy’s magnetic field, the astronomers found a connection between the supernova remnants and their environment.

Astronomers used a super computer in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manitoba to create these models of supernova remnants. The appearance of the simulated supernova remnants depended on the orientation of the magnetic field lines for the direction of a particular remnant, and also differing distances from the Sun.

Samar Safi-Harb, West’s doctoral thesis advisor, notes: “West’s research further stresses the importance of studying supernova remnants, which not only host the heavy elements we are made of, but also help us understand the interplay between these fascinating objects and cosmic magnetism.”

West and her colleagues found that about 80 out of 300 known supernova remnants in the galaxy have the double-lobed shape and most of these (about 75 percent) have models that match the orientation for at least some distances along the line of sight. This gives some insight into the nature of supernova remnants and also helps refine our understanding of the galaxy’s magnetic field. Furthermore, this research helps astronomers understand how cosmic rays can journey to us on this “galactic superhighway.”

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BREAKING NEWS: Astronomers Discover Connection Between Magnetic Fields of Supernova and Our Milky Way

This new finding is yet another strong affirmation towards Battros 2012 ‘Equation’. This study displays a distinct connection between celestial events and our galaxy Milky Way. My Equation implements a natural systemic process of repeated cyclical events throughout its life. This is the essence of my current research I have named the “Science of Cycles”.

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles and Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

new_equation 2012_m

An international team of astronomers has discovered a possible connection between the magnetic fields of supernova remnants and that of our own Milky Way Galaxy. The study, recently published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, found that the orientation of supernova remnants can help astronomers understand the nature and shape of the magnetic field of the Milky Way Galaxy itself.

“In supernova explosions, charged particles are accelerated close to the speed-of-light and then speed through space as cosmic rays, some finding their way to Earth”, says Jennifer West, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, lead author of the study. The Earth is constantly being bombarded by trillions of these cosmic rays, with some of the highest energy ones coming from supernovae and supernova remnants. These can interfere with electronic equipment and be hazardous to people, particularly people flying in aircraft or living in space.

supernova_remnants_magnetic_field_m

Magnetic fields play important roles in many astrophysical processes such as solar flares, stellar evolution, galaxy dynamics, and even the evolution of the universe. They also play a very important role in the dynamics of supernova remnants, which represent some of the most extreme environments in the universe, with conditions unlike anything we can duplicate on Earth.

Supernova remnants are what’s left after stars explode, effectively blowing giant bubbles in the interstellar medium. Many supernova remnants are double-lobed astronomical objects that look like two facing hamburger buns, with the invisible “burger” axes aligned with local magnetic fields.

supernova remnants_m

For this study, the researchers examined archival radio images of every known supernova remnant in the galaxy to compile a complete sample of objects with this double-lobed shape. Observations show that these axes point in different directions, astronomers were not sure if the orientation is random, caused by local effects, or whether the direction may be influenced by the Milky Way Galaxy’s own magnetic field. By comparing the orientation of the supernova remnants in the images with models based on simulations of the galaxy’s magnetic field, the astronomers found a connection between the supernova remnants and their environment.

Astronomers used a super computer in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manitoba to create these models of supernova remnants. The appearance of the simulated supernova remnants depended on the orientation of the magnetic field lines for the direction of a particular remnant, and also differing distances from the Sun.

Samar Safi-Harb, West’s doctoral thesis advisor, notes: “West’s research further stresses the importance of studying supernova remnants, which not only host the heavy elements we are made of, but also help us understand the interplay between these fascinating objects and cosmic magnetism.”

West and her colleagues found that about 80 out of 300 known supernova remnants in the galaxy have the double-lobed shape and most of these (about 75 percent) have models that match the orientation for at least some distances along the line of sight. This gives some insight into the nature of supernova remnants and also helps refine our understanding of the galaxy’s magnetic field. Furthermore, this research helps astronomers understand how cosmic rays can journey to us on this “galactic superhighway.”

BREAKING NEWS: Serious Plausibility of Undetected 9th Planet in Our Solar System

The reason for why this new proposed discovery has not made headlines (my personal conjecture), must be related to minimize a hysteria reaction from the “Planet-X” community – and I would side for such reason having witnessed this wild unfounded speculation in the past. However, for such a proposed finding to go “undetected” until now is a bit unsettling.

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It is still unclear to this writer, if this finding is separate from Caltec’s assertion earlier this year. I would suggest it is the same – but provides further evidence towards confirmation. The assertion is the 9th Planet was orbiting another star and then was captured by our Sun during the time of its stellar cluster breakout – which basically suggests the 9th Planet has been in orbit from the time of our solar systems creation.

Before I go into this just published claim, let me layout the strict criteria a researcher must meet to assert that of a 9th planet in our solar system. a) The encounter must be more distant than ∼150 AU to avoid perturbing the Kuiper belt. b) The other star must have a wide-orbit planet – a ≳ 100 au  c) the planet must be captured onto an appropriate orbit to sculpt the orbital distribution of wide-orbit Solar System bodies.

9th planet

Astronomers at the University of Lund show a computer simulation study of the so-called 9th Planet meets a high probability of sustaining an orbit in our solar system. Alexander Mustill, astronomer at the University of Lund, says “It is most ironic that while astronomers often find extrasolar planets hundreds of light years away in other solar systems, this one had been hiding in our own backyard”.

An extrasolar plane (exoplanet) has by definition been a planet located outside our own solar system. Now it seems the definition is not viable anymore. According to astronomers in Lund, indications show a 9th Planet was captured by our young Sun, has gone undetected until now, and is part of our solar system.

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Stars are born in clusters often pass in very close proximity. It is in these meetings that a star can capture one or more planets in orbit around another star. This is probably what happened when our own Sun caught the 9th Planet.

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Science of Cycles w/ Mitch Battros News Service Update

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As with all coming summer time seasons, donations have almost come to a complete halt – however, the news of scientific breakthroughs with amazing findings are coming as rapidly as ever.

I have almost completely diminished out-of-pocket cost to keep this unique news service running and available to all. Your support is the lifeline of our services and we need you now more than just about any other time in our 21-year history. I know times are tough for almost everyone in the community, with no exception here. For those that can please consider a sponsorship with a monthly or annual commitment. And for those with ever tightening budgets, your donation of $5,10,20,50 will certainly help.

Go to the following link and submit your secure donations today. Unfortunately, time is not on our side, so please consider making your supportive effort at the speed of an X-15 solar flare.

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Cheers, Mitch

 

 

The Task of Measuring the Milky Way

Measuring the mass of our home galaxy, or any galaxy, is particularly difficult. A galaxy includes not only stars, planets, moons, gases, dust and other objects and material, but also a big helping of dark matter, a mysterious and invisible form of matter that is not yet fully understood and has not been directly detected in the lab. Astronomers and cosmologists, however, can infer the presence of dark matter through its gravitational influence on visible objects.

Milky-Way-Formed-From-the-Inside-Out

The short answer, so far, is 7 x 1011 solar masses. In terms that are easier to comprehend, that’s about the mass of our Sun, multiplied by 700 billion. The Sun, for the record, has a mass of two nonillion (that’s 2 followed by 30 zeroes) kilograms, or 330,000 times the mass of Earth.

“And our galaxy isn’t even the biggest galaxy,” says Gwendolyn Eadie, a PhD candidate in physics and astronomy at McMaster University.

The orbits of globular clusters are determined by the galaxy’s gravity, which is dictated by its massive dark matter component. What’s new about Eadie’s research is the technique she devised for using globular cluster (GCs) velocities.

The total velocity of a GC must be measured in two directions: one along our line-of-sight, and one across the plane of the sky (the proper motion). Unfortunately, researchers have not yet measured the proper motions of all the GCs around the Milky Way.

Eadie and her academic supervisor William Harris, a professor of Physics and Astronomy at McMaster, have co-authored a paper on their most recent findings, which allow dark matter and visible matter to have different distributions in space. They have submitted this work to the Astrophysical Journal, and Eadie will present their results May 31 at the Canadian Astronomical Society’s conference in Winnipeg.

Astronomy Student Discovers Four New Planets

Michelle Kunimoto’s bachelor degree in physics and astronomy sent her on a journey out of this world—and led to the discovery of four new worlds beyond our solar system.

four new planets

The planets, designated “planet candidates” until independently confirmed, are exciting discoveries. Two are the size of Earth, one is Mercury-sized, and one is slightly larger than Neptune. But it’s this last one, the largest of the four, that is of special interest.

Officially catalogued as KOI (Kepler Object of Interest) 408.05 and located 3,200 light years away from Earth, the planet occupies the habitable zone of its star where the temperature would allow liquid water and maybe life.

“Like our own Neptune, it’s unlikely to have a rocky surface or oceans,” said Kunimoto, who graduates today from UBC. “The exciting part is that like the large planets in our solar system, it could have large moons and these moons could have liquid water oceans.”

“Pandora in the movie Avatar was not a planet, but a moon of a giant planet,” said Jaymie Matthews, a UBC professor of astronomy.

While the possibility of life is enticing, Kunimoto was excited about the discovery for other reasons. As part of a course designed to give astronomy students research and career experience, she spent months sifting through data from NASA’s Kepler satellite, trying to find anything that other scientists overlooked.

The Kepler space telescope spent four years staring at about 150,000 stars in our own galaxy, looking for periodic changes in the brightness of stars over time and collecting data known as light curves.

“A star is just a pinpoint of light so I’m looking for subtle dips in a star’s brightness every time a planet passes in front of it,” said Kunimoto. “These dips are known as transits, and they’re the only way we can know the diameter of a planet outside the solar system.”

The larger the orbit, the fewer transits you see. Which is why the discovery of this warm Neptune is so rare. It takes 637 days for the planet to orbit its sun. Of the nearly 5,000 planets and planet candidates found by the Kepler satellite, only 20 have longer orbital periods than KOI 408.05.

Kunimoto and Matthews have submitted their findings to the Astronomical Journal. In September, she’ll be returning to UBC to begin a master’s degree in physics and astronomy, hunting for more planets and investigating whether they could support life.

In the meantime, the new graduate and Star Trek fan got the chance to meet a real-life star and space explorer. On Saturday, she met William Shatner backstage at the UBC100 What’s Next? event and told him about these possible new destinations for a future Starship Enterprise.

Science of Cycles w/ Mitch Battros News Service Update

_science-of-cycles33

As with all coming summer time seasons, donations have almost come to a complete halt – however, the news of scientific breakthroughs with amazing findings are coming as rapidly as ever.

I have almost completely diminished out-of-pocket cost to keep this unique news service running and available to all. Your support is the lifeline of our services and we need you now more than just about any other time in our 21-year history. I know times are tough for almost everyone in the community, with no exception here. For those that can please consider a sponsorship with a monthly or annual commitment. And for those with ever tightening budgets, your donation of $5,10,20,50 will certainly help.

Go to the following link and submit your secure donations today. Unfortunately, time is not on our side, so please consider making your supportive effort at the speed of an X-15 solar flare.

For PayPal Sponsorship/Donation – Click Here

Cheers, Mitch