BREAKING NEWS: Earth’s Magnetic Field Continues Decline in Strength and Increase Rate of Movement

Presented at this week’s Living Planet Symposium, new results from the constellation of Swarm satellites show where our protective field is weakening and strengthening, and importantly how fast these changes are taking place.

magnetic field weakening

The Earth’s magnetic north pole is drifting from northern Canada towards Siberia with a presently accelerating rate of 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) per year at the beginning of the 20th century, up to 40 kilometers (25 mi) per year in 2003 – and since then has only accelerated. “At this rate it will exit North America and reach Siberia in a few decades, says scientist Larry Newitt of the Geological Survey of Canada.

magnetic field reversal

In addition, the magnetic north pole is wandering east, towards Asia. The current rate of change (since 1840) is about 0.07 degrees per year. But between 1225 and about 1550 AD, rates averaged closer to 0.12 degrees per year – significantly faster than expected.

VIDEO: Changes in Strength
of Earth’s Magnetic Field

magnetic field weakening3

Based on results from ESA’s Swarm mission, the animation shows how the strength of Earth’s magnetic field has changed between 1999 and mid-2016. Blue depicts where the field is weak and red shows regions where the field is strong. The field has weakened by about 3.5% at high latitudes over North America, while it has grown about 2% stronger over Asia. The region where the field is at its weakest field – the South Atlantic Anomaly – has moved steadily westward and further weakened by about 2%. In addition, the magnetic north pole is wandering east.

cosmic_rays_earth's_core_climate_cycle_lg

With more than two years of measurements by ESA’s Swarm satellite trio, changes in the strength of Earth’s magnetic field are being mapped in detail. It is clear that ESA’s innovative Swarm mission is providing new insights into our changing magnetic field. Further results are expected to lead to new information on many natural processes, from those occurring deep inside the planet to weather in space caused by solar activity.

Swarm_constellation

Launched at the end of 2013, Swarm is measuring and untangling the different magnetic signals from Earth’s core, mantle, crust, oceans, ionosphere and magnetosphere – an undertaking that will take several years to complete.

Although invisible, the magnetic field and electric currents in and around Earth generate complex forces that have immeasurable effects on our everyday lives.

The field can be thought of as a huge bubble, protecting us from cosmic radiation and electrically charged atomic particles that bombard Earth in solar winds. However, it is in a permanent state of flux.

The magnetic field is thought to be produced largely by an ocean of molten, swirling liquid iron that makes up our planet’s outer core, 3000 km under our feet. Acting like the spinning conductor in a bicycle dynamo, it generates electrical currents and thus the continuously changing electromagnetic field.

It is thought that accelerations in field strength are related to changes in how this liquid iron flows and oscillates in the outer core.

Chris Finlay, senior scientist at DTU Space in Denmark, said, “Unexpectedly, we are finding rapid localized field changes that seem to be a result of accelerations of liquid metal flowing within the core.”

Rune Floberghagen, ESA’s Swarm mission manager, added, “Two and a half years after the mission was launched it is great to see that Swarm is mapping the magnetic field and its variations with phenomenal precision.

“The quality of the data is truly excellent, and this paves the way for a profusion of scientific applications as the data continue to be exploited.”

In turn, this information will certainly yield a better understanding of why the magnetic field is weakening in some places, and globally.

BREAKING NEWS: New Study Shows Mantle Plume Movement Occurs More Rapidly Affecting Oceans and Climate

Still more confirmation of Battros 2012 equation identifying mantle plumes role in Earth’s core convection process. This new study also confirms mantle’s effect on ocean warming and specifically “ice caps.” This throws a hefty monkey-wrench into advocates of the 1988 made-up name global warming. I will attach my previous articles highlighting the connection to cyclical events occurring in our backyard “Milky Way” and our neighboring galaxies.

equation-mantle plumes

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles → Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

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Researchers have compiled the first global set of observations of the movement of the Earth’s mantle, the 3000-kilometer thick layer of hot silicate rocks between the crust and the core, and have found that it looks very different to predictions made by geologists over the past 30  a years.

galaxy-sun-earth3_m

The team, from the University of Cambridge, used more than 2000 measurements taken from the world’s oceans in order to peer beneath the Earth’s crust and observe the chaotic nature of mantle flow. These movements have a huge influence on the way Earth looks today related to mountain formation, volcanic activity and earthquakes.

inside earth1

The result of this new research is now published in the journal Nature Geoscience. Significant ramifications across many disciplines including the study of oceanic circulation and past climate change are now made manifest creating a bit of a shake-up in the global warming world.

The inventory of more than 2000 spot observations was determined by analyzing seismic surveys of the world’s oceans. By examining variations in the depth of the ocean floor, the researchers were able to construct a global database of the mantle’s movements.

subsea-volcanoes-110712-02

“These results will have wider reaching implications,” said Hoggard. “Considering the surface is moving much faster than we had previously thought, it could also affect things like the stability of ice caps and help us to understand past climate change.”

__________________________

Below are Recent Articles Reflecting
Battros Hypothesis Turned Theory

JUST IN: New High-Energy Sources of Gamma and Cosmic Rays Discovered

JUST IN: New Maps Chart Mantle Plumes Melting Greenland Glaciers

JUST IN: Scientists Beginning to Identify Signs That  Galactic Cycles are Analogous with Sun-Earth’s Circumvolution

BREAKING NEWS: Powerful Acquiescence of Battros ‘Equation’ in New Discovery – Charged Particle Acceleration

UPDATE: New Sources of Charged Particles Discovered

BREAKING NEWS: A Dramatic Galactic Explosion Arrived at Earth in 2012

_________________

_science-of-cycles33

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Type: OAuthException
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BREAKING NEWS: New Study Shows Mantle Plume Movement Occurs More Rapidly Affecting Oceans and Climate

Still more confirmation of Battros 2012 equation identifying mantle plumes role in Earth’s core convection process. This new study also confirms mantle’s effect on ocean warming and specifically “ice caps.” This throws a hefty monkey-wrench into advocates of the 1988 made-up name global warming. I will attach my previous articles highlighting the connection to cyclical events occurring in our backyard “Milky Way” and our neighboring galaxies.

equation-mantle plumes

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles → Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

Mitch Battros and “Science of Cycles” Research Sponsorship Fundraiser
– Be part of keeping ‘Science of Cycles’ alive and free. – Your support is needed to keep this unique and valuable resource.
– Help sponsor us with your pledge as you see fit to the value you receive.     
– CLICK HERE –

Researchers have compiled the first global set of observations of the movement of the Earth’s mantle, the 3000-kilometer thick layer of hot silicate rocks between the crust and the core, and have found that it looks very different to predictions made by geologists over the past 30  a years.

galaxy-sun-earth3_m

The team, from the University of Cambridge, used more than 2000 measurements taken from the world’s oceans in order to peer beneath the Earth’s crust and observe the chaotic nature of mantle flow. These movements have a huge influence on the way Earth looks today related to mountain formation, volcanic activity and earthquakes.

inside earth1

The result of this new research is now published in the journal Nature Geoscience. Significant ramifications across many disciplines including the study of oceanic circulation and past climate change are now made manifest creating a bit of a shake-up in the global warming world.

The inventory of more than 2000 spot observations was determined by analyzing seismic surveys of the world’s oceans. By examining variations in the depth of the ocean floor, the researchers were able to construct a global database of the mantle’s movements.

subsea-volcanoes-110712-02

“These results will have wider reaching implications,” said Hoggard. “Considering the surface is moving much faster than we had previously thought, it could also affect things like the stability of ice caps and help us to understand past climate change.”

__________________________

Below are Recent Articles Reflecting
Battros Hypothesis Turned Theory

JUST IN: New High-Energy Sources of Gamma and Cosmic Rays Discovered

JUST IN: New Maps Chart Mantle Plumes Melting Greenland Glaciers

JUST IN: Scientists Beginning to Identify Signs That  Galactic Cycles are Analogous with Sun-Earth’s Circumvolution

BREAKING NEWS: Powerful Acquiescence of Battros ‘Equation’ in New Discovery – Charged Particle Acceleration

UPDATE: New Sources of Charged Particles Discovered

BREAKING NEWS: A Dramatic Galactic Explosion Arrived at Earth in 2012

_________________

_science-of-cycles33

Mitch Battros and Science of Cycles Research Sponsorship Fundraiser – Be part of keeping ‘Science of Cycles’ alive and free. – Your support is needed to keep this unique and valuable resource. Help sponsor us with your pledge as you see fit to the value you receive.

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Error: (#10) To use 'Page Public Content Access', your use of this endpoint must be reviewed and approved by Facebook. To submit this 'Page Public Content Access' feature for review please read our documentation on reviewable features: https://developers.facebook.com/docs/apps/review.
Type: OAuthException
Code: 10
Please refer to our Error Message Reference.

BREAKING NEWS: Scientists Detect Unexpected Drop in the Magnetic Field of X-Ray Pulsars

By now, most of you have caught on to my documented hypothesis, now turning to theory, indicating all that we have learned (ongoing) about the Sun-Earth connection directs us to the ‘science of cycles’. This is to say – the better we understand the cycles (rhythm) of events, the better we can prepare for advantageous and disadvantaged events of the future.

_science_ancient_text2

I will place some recent related articles below which I believe leaves a strong paper trail suggesting what we have learned about the cyclical events of the Sun-Earth connection, is mirrored in many ways to most if not all celestial orbs – whether they be pulsars, dwarfs, or galaxies. It is the ‘science of cycles’, which holds true today as it did a millennia or a mega-annum ago. Our ancestors collected and handed down some very valuable knowledge through history; science is just now able to verify it.

earth-magnetic-field-neutron field-diagram5_m

A team of scientists has recently presented evidence of an unexpected drop in the observed magnetic field of an accreting pulsar designated V0332+53. This downturn, observed after the pulsar underwent a bright, three-month-long X-ray outburst, could yield important information on how the added mass settling on the surface of a neutron star affects its magnetic field. The findings are detailed in a paper published online on Apr. 26 in the arXiv journal.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

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V0332+53 is a gathering pulsar emitting X-ray radiation, with a spin period of 4.4 seconds. It orbits an early type companion star in an eccentric orbit of about 34 days. Significantly, this pulsar shows sporadic giant X-ray outbursts lasting several weeks, followed by years-long intervals of dormancy.

pulsar_radiation4

These X-ray outbursts were observed in 1989, between November 2004 and February 2005, and between June and September 2015. The latest outburst drew the attention of a team of researchers, led by Giancarlo Cusumano of the Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics in Palermo, Italy. Using the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT), both mounted on NASA’s Swift spacecraft, the astronomers were able to observe the pulsar in soft X-ray and high-energy bands.

By studying the results, the team detected a noteworthy drop in the observed magnetic field between the onset and the end of the outburst.

pulsar_radiation2_m

The findings could be crucial for our understanding of the matter accretion processes in neutron stars and could provide new insights on pulsars’ X-ray outburst events. According to the research, the magnetic field of neutron star drives the accumulating matter along its field lines towards the magnetic polar caps, forming an appendage, where matter is followed up by radiative processes that produce X-rays.

FULL ARTICLE: CLICK HERE

________________

Mitch_and_Crew_medd

**Previous Articles Reflecting Battros Hypothesis Turned Theory

JUST IN: New High-Energy Sources of Gamma and Cosmic Rays Discovered

JUST IN: New Maps Chart Mantle Plumes Melting Greenland Glaciers

JUST IN: Scientists Beginning to Identify Signs That  Galactic Cycles are Analogous with Sun-Earth’s Circumvolution

BREAKING NEWS: Powerful Acquiescence of Battros ‘Equation’ in New Discovery – Charged Particle Acceleration

UPDATE: New Sources of Charged Particles Discovered

BREAKING NEWS: A Dramatic Galactic Explosion Arrived at Earth in 2012

 ________________

_science of cycles33

Mitch Battros and Science of Cycles Research Sponsorship Fundraiser – Be part of keeping ‘Science of Cycles’ alive and free. Your support is needed to keep this unique and valuable resource. Help sponsor us with your pledge as you see fit to the value you receive.          – CLICK HERE – 

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(NEW) Scientists Detect Unexpected Drop in the Magnetic Field of X-Ray Pulsar

A team of scientists has recently presented evidence of an unexpected drop in the observed magnetic field of an accreting pulsar designated V0332+53. This downturn, observed after the pulsar underwent a bright, three-month-long X-ray outburst, could yield important information on how the accreted mass settling on the surface of a neutron star affects its magnetic field. The findings are detailed in a paper published online on Apr. 26 in the arXiv journal.

pulsargraphic

V0332+53 is an accreting pulsar emitting X-ray radiation, with a spin period of 4.4 seconds. It orbits an early type companion star in an eccentric orbit of about 34 days. Significantly, this pulsar shows sporadic giant X-ray outbursts lasting several weeks, followed by years-long intervals of dormancy.

These X-ray outburst were observed in 1989, between November 2004 and February 2005, and between June and September 2015. The latest outburst drew the attention of a team of researchers, led by Giancarlo Cusumano of the Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics in Palermo, Italy. Using the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT), both mounted on NASA’s Swift spacecraft, the astronomers were able to observe the pulsar in soft X-ray and high-energy bands.

pulsar_radiation2

By studying the results, the team detected a noteworthy drop in the observed magnetic field between the onset and the end of the outburst.

“The comparison of the XRT profiles in the soft X-rays provides a hint against the hypothesis of a geometrical beam variation. If, on the other hand, the line-forming region is the same at equal luminosities, the observed difference in the cyclotron energy corresponds to a difference in the magnetic field of about 1.7 ×1011 G,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

proto-star_m

The findings could be crucial for our understanding of matter accretion processes in neutron stars and could provide new insights on pulsars’ X-ray outburst events. According to the research, the magnetic field of neutron star drives the accreting matter along its field lines towards the magnetic polar caps, forming an accretion column, where matter is followed up by radiative processes that produce X-rays.

Notably, the drop in the magnetic field, as described in the latest paper, wasn’t observed after previous outbursts. The researchers found out that although the total mass accreted at the end of the 2004-2005 and the 2015 outburst is similar, during the 2004-2005 event, a higher luminosity was reached earlier. They also concluded that decay of the magnetic field is not directly proportional to the total accreted mass.

pulsar_radiation4

Moreover, the scientists hypothesize that the cause of the significant decay of the magnetic field through accretion observed at V0332+53 could be due to “diamagnetic screening.”

“In this hypothesis, the accreting plasma builds up to form a magnetically confined mound, where the gas pressure balances the magnetic stresses. This would produce, as an overall effect, a distortion of the field lines observed as a decrease of the field component along the accretion column,” the paper reads.

However, as the team noted, the lack of coverage in the first ten days of the outburst doesn’t allow them to confirm this theory.

BREAKING NEWS: Powerful Acquiescence of Battros ‘Equation’ in New Discovery – Charged Particle Acceleration

Mitch_and_Crew_medd

“If talking about fronts and shock-waves and temperature differentials, it sounds a lot like the weather on Earth, that’s because there is not much difference as far as the physics involved. “Technically, we observe the same features in space that we do on Earth,” says Dasadia Sarthak, lead author of this new research and published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. “This area has been studied extensively before at small scales, but few had done the work to discover what I found here at such big scales.”

New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles and Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

new_equation 2012_m

Already, scientists are targeting shock-waves in galaxy clusters to study dark matter, the magnetic field surrounding the cluster, charged particle acceleration and energy transfer in the intra-cluster medium. “This could open a door, where people can do a number of different studies based on what I have found,” says Dasadia Sarthak, from the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH).

abell 665

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The discovery occurred in the merging galaxy cluster ‘Abell 655 by using observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. It is the second-strongest merging shock-wave within a galaxy cluster ever observed generating excitement that is opening doors to further scientific exploration.

Chandra_X-ray_Observatory

This uncommon form of hot plasma discharge ejecting waves of charged particles provides unique opportunities to study this high-energy phenomena in the intra-cluster medium between galaxies.

In only 10 days, Dasadia’s research was accepted for publication by The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Dasadia recently received one year of research support from the Alabama EPSCoR Graduate Research Scholars Program (ALEPSCoR). He also gave an oral presentation on his research in August at the International Astronomical Union (IAU) General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii.

undefined clusters4

The universe is populated with galaxy clusters that are relaxed and unrelaxed, Dasadia says. The relaxed ones are mellow — they’ve been around a lot longer, have seen lots of past mergers and really aren’t dynamically active. It’s the unrelaxed clusters like Abell 665 that are good candidates to study merger features such as shocks and turbulence.

When the undefined boundaries of massive clusters of galaxies 3 million light-years across are drawn together in a slow-motion collision, their cold cores and surrounding hot gases are disrupted into shock waves and gas fronts of various temperatures.

undefined clusters2

“When two cold cores collide, they may create a shock of heated gas,” Dasadia says. “Such mergers are actually among the most energetic events in the universe, other than the Big Bang itself.”

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If talking about fronts and shock waves and temperature differentials sounds a lot like the weather on Earth, Dasadia says that’s because there is not much difference as far as the physics involved.

“Technically, we observe the same features in space that we do on Earth,” he says. “This area has been studied extensively before at small scales, but few had done the work to discover what I found here at such big scales.”

“It amazes me how long it takes for this information to even reach the Earth,” Dasadia says. “Then I am also amazed by our technology, by how much we have advanced in developing the telescopes and equipment it takes to be able to observe and study these interactions.”

_science of cycles33

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Found: Clues About Volcanoes Under Ice On Ancient Mars

Volcanoes erupted beneath an ice sheet on Mars billions of years ago, far from any ice sheet on the Red Planet today, new evidence from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter suggests.

foundcluesab

The research about these volcanoes helps show there was extensive ice on ancient Mars. It also adds information about an environment combining heat and moisture, which could have provided favorable conditions for microbial life.

Sheridan Ackiss of Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, and collaborators used the orbiter’s mineral-mapping spectrometer to investigate surface composition in an oddly textured region of southern Mars called “Sisyphi Montes.” The region is studded with flat-topped mountains. Other researchers previously noted these domes’ similarity in shape to volcanoes on Earth that erupted underneath ice.

“Rocks tell stories. Studying the rocks can show how the volcano formed or how it was changed over time,” Ackiss said. “I wanted to learn what story the rocks on these volcanoes were telling.”

When a volcano begins erupting beneath a sheet of ice on Earth, the rapidly generated steam typically leads to explosions that punch through the ice and propel ash high into the sky. For example, the 2010 eruption of ice-covered Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland lofted ash that disrupted air travel across Europe for about a week.

Characteristic minerals resulting from such subglacial volcanism on Earth include zeolites, sulfates and clays. Those are just what the new research has detected at some flat-topped mountains in the Sisyphi Montes region examined with the spacecraft’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), providing resolution of about 60 feet (18 meters) per pixel.

“We wouldn’t have been able to do this without the high resolution of CRISM,” Ackiss said.

The Sisyphi Montes region extends from about 55 degrees to 75 degrees south latitude. Some of the sites that have shapes and compositions consistent with volcanic eruptions beneath an ice sheet are about 1,000 miles (about 1,600 kilometers) from the current south polar ice cap of Mars. The cap now has a diameter of about 220 miles (about 350 kilometers).