Part -V Short to Medium-Term Cycles to Long-Term Cycles and Back Again

Just as the Earth and other planets rotate around our Sun, our solar system has a rotating trajectory around our galaxy Milky Way. And I must say…before I leave this plane of existence, I feel confident future research will reveal new evidence announcing that our galaxy (along with neighboring galaxies), will have a periodicity rotation with cyclical parameters rotating around…what is yet to be discovered.

The Earth is regularly exposed to cosmic rays as it oscillates upward through the galactic disc. Every 60 million years or so, astronomers believe that our Sun and planets cycle northward in the galactic plane. Just as the Earth has her magnetic field, Milky Way has its own. Without the galactic plane’s magnetic field shielding our solar system, we would be at even higher risk of radiation exposure.

The idea the evolution of life is punctuated by major extinction events with intervals of many millions of years is well established. Familiar episodes include the Cretaceous – Paleogene transition (65.5 mya), which saw the final demise of the non avian dinosaurs and many shallow sea life-forms, and the end-Permian (251 mya) when an estimated 56% of marine genera became extinct.

It is hypnotized the closer our solar system travels to the galactic center, we researchers observed a correlation between these cyclical events and its concordance with partial and mass extinctions transpiring with measurable regularity on Earth over the past 500 million years.

Identifying mass extinction signals is part of a wider search of periodicity to causal processes associated with geological events. Previous studies have identified a variety of periods including:

1) 26-35 Myr. (million year) geo-period evidenced by mantle plumes, flood basalt, and large igneous provinces (LIPs): 2) A 60-62 Myr cycle identified by marine genera, sea level and LIPs: 3) A 135 -145 Myr. cycle established by marine genera, and oxygen isotope records and also identified a ice age epoch.


I’m guessing some of you know where I’m going with this new series of research articles. However, I believe most of you are still not quite sure. I must say, it has been a long-long time since I had to re-written 2 or 3 times on this article and the previous ones. I feel confident this series of articles are very important and perhaps it may be difficult for one to wrap their mind around this information realizing how closely connected our little planet is to our solar system and galaxy.

*If you find this information meaningful feel free to contribute. Go to the click here button to support this work.  CLICK HERE

At this moment I truly can’t say how many parts to this series there will be. I am certain of at least two more after this one, but 3 to 5 additional is not out of the question. I wish to thank you the two or three of you for your contribution. It comes at a good time. I have made a choice to dedicate a significant amount of time to these new understandings, and it is very important for me to present them to you in a method and style which most people will understand; and eventually all of you.

Coming Next: Part VI – Coming Friday but not sure of title as of know

New Study Proposes Short and Long Process of Extinction

A new study of nearly 22,000 fossils finds that ancient plankton communities began changing in important ways as much as 400,000 years before massive die-offs ensued during the first of Earth’s five great extinctions.


The research, published July 18 in the Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, focused on large zooplankton called graptolites. It suggests that the effects of environmental degradation can be subtle until they reach a tipping point, at which dramatic declines in population begins.

“In looking at these organisms, what we saw was a disruption of community structures – the way in which the plankton were organized in the water column. Communities came to be less complex and dominated by fewer species well before the massive extinction itself,” says co-author H. David Sheets, PhD, professor of physics at Canisius College and associate research professor in the Evolution, Ecology and Behavior graduate program at the University at Buffalo.

This turmoil, occurring in a time of ancient climate change, could hold lessons for the modern world, says co-author Charles E. Mitchell, PhD, professor of geology in the University at Buffalo College of Arts and Sciences.

The shifts took place at the end of the Ordovician Period some 450 million years ago as the planet transitioned from a warm era into a cooler one, leading eventually to glaciation and lower sea levels.

“Our research suggests that ecosystems often respond in stepwise and mostly predictable ways to changes in the physical environment – until they can’t. Then we see much larger, more abrupt, and ecologically disruptive changes,” Mitchell says. “The nature of such tipping point effects are hard to foresee and, at least in this case, they led to large and permanent changes in the composition of the oceans’ living communities.

“I think we need to be quite concerned about where our current ocean communities may be headed or we may find ourselves at the tail end of a similar event – a sixth mass extinction, living in a very different world than we would like.” The study was a partnership between Canisius, UB, St. Francis Xavier University, Dalhousie University and The Czech Academy of Sciences.

A long slide toward oblivion

In considering mass extinction, there is perhaps the temptation to think of such events as rapid and sudden: At one moment in history, various species are present, and the next they are not.

This might be the conclusion you’d draw if you examined only whether different species of graptolites were present in the fossil record in the years immediately preceding and following the Ordovician extinction.

“If you just looked at whether they were present – if they were there or not – they were there right up to the brink of the extinction,” Sheets says. “But in reality, these communities had begun declining quite a while before species started going extinct.”

The research teased out these details by using 21,946 fossil specimens from areas of Nevada in the U.S. and the Yukon in Canada that were once ancient sea beds to paint a picture of graptolite evolution.

The analysis found that as ocean circulation patterns began to shift hundreds of thousands of years before the Ordovician extinction, graptolite communities that previously included a rich array of both shallow- and deep-sea species began to lose their diversity and complexity.

Deep-water graptolites became progressively rarer in comparison to their shallow-water counterparts, which came to dominate the ocean.

“There was less variety of organisms, and the rare organisms got rarer,” Sheets says. “In the aftermath of a forest fire in the modern world, you might find that there are fewer organisms left – that the ecosystem just doesn’t have the same structure and richness as before. That’s the same pattern we see here.”

The dwindling deep-sea graptolites were species that specialized in obtaining nutrients from low-oxygen zones of the ocean. A decrease in the availability of such habitats may have sparked the creatures’ decline, Sheets and Mitchell say.

“Temperature changes drive deep ocean circulations, and we think the deep-water graptolites lost their habitats as the climate changed,” Sheets says. “As the nature of the oceans shifted, their way of life went away.”

BREAKING NEWS: Supernova Showered Earth with Radioactive Debris

An international team of scientists has found evidence of a series of massive supernova explosions near our solar system, which showered the Earth with radioactive debris. The scientists found radioactive iron-60 in sediment and crust samples taken from the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

supernova mingus

Some theories suggest cosmic rays from the supernova could have increased cloud cover. The scientists believe the supernova in this case were less than 300 light years away; close enough to be visible during the day and comparable to the brightness of the Moon.

The supernova explosions create many heavy elements and radioactive isotopes which are strewn into the cosmic neighborhood. Although Earth would have been exposed to an increased cosmic ray bombardment, the radiation would have been too weak to cause direct biological damage or trigger mass extinctions.


Any iron-60 dating from the Earth’s formation more than four billion years ago has long since disappeared. The iron-60 atoms reached Earth in minuscule quantities and so the team needed extremely sensitive techniques to identify the interstellar iron atoms.

The team from Australia, the University of Vienna in Austria, Hebrew University in Israel, Shimizu Corporation and University of Tokyo, Nihon University and University of Tsukuba in Japan, Senckenberg Collections of Natural History Dresden and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) in Germany, also found evidence of iron-60 from an older supernova around eight million years ago, coinciding with global faunal changes in the late Miocene.


The iron-60 was concentrated in a period between 3.2 and 1.7 million years ago, which is relatively recent in astronomical terms, said research leader Dr Anton Wallner from The Australian National University (ANU).

“We were very surprised that there was debris clearly spread across 1.5 million years,” said Dr Wallner, a nuclear physicist in the ANU Research School of Physics and Engineering. “It suggests there were a series of supernova, one after another. “It’s an interesting coincidence that they correspond with when the Earth cooled and moved from the Pliocene into the Pleistocene period.”


The dating showed the fallout had only occurred in two time periods, 3.2 to 1.7 million years ago and eight million years ago. Current results from TU Munich are in line with these findings.

A possible source of the supernova is an ageing star cluster, which has since moved away from Earth, independent work led by TU Berlin has proposed in a parallel publication. The cluster has no large stars left, suggesting they have already exploded as supernova, throwing out waves of debris.