Vanuatu Volcano Eruption Intensifies Covering Ambae Island In Ash And Smoke

The active volcano on Vanuatu’s Ambae island has once again begun spewing out ash and harmful smoke, and Vanuatu’s government is now looking into acquiring land to permanently resettle the island’s 13,000 residents.

The future of the people of Ambae has been under threat since late last year when eruptions from the Manaro volcano prompted an island-wide evacuation.

While residents were allowed to return to their homes after the volcano stabilised, ashfall has remained a problem and for the past three weeks the government has been in negotiations to relocate the worst affected villages in west Ambae.

Government spokesman Hilaire Bule said a shift in wind direction brought on by Tropical Cyclone Hola last month has dramatically increased the impact of the ashfall.

With the deluge of volcanic debris spreading across the island, the case for permanent relocation of the entire population has become stronger than ever.

The government is meeting with chiefs from the nearby islands of Maewo and Pentecost to discuss the possibility of acquiring land for resettlement.

Mr Bule said evacuation is not mandatory for Ambae residents, however that could change in coming weeks.

“If people want to leave the island it will depend entirely on the people of Ambae, but it is not compulsory,” he said.

Photos from Ambae showed villages and forests covered in a heavy layer of ash, food gardens destroyed and water sources polluted.

The humanitarian organisation Rotary International recently spent more than $450,000 upgrading the island’s hospital, and they have stepped in to help in the current crisis.

Chairman of Rotary District 9910 on Norfolk Island, Lindsay Ford, said against the backdrop of massive crop loss and contaminated water supplies, they have arranged for 400 refillable 20 litre fresh water containers to be dispatched to Ambae.

The extent of the ashfall has raised concerns about the health risk to residents, and Mr Ford said he had received reports of people dying.

“We’ve been notified that four people have died on the island in the last couple of days as a result of the volcano and the acid rain,” he said.

“There wouldn’t be any more edible crops on the island, the ash has affected all drinking water.”

BREAKING NEWS: New Paradigm Develops of Earth’s Magnetic Field ‘Above and Below’

Just released, new imaging identifying never before discovery of magnetic fields which sit just above the lithosphere, which includes Earth’s rigid crust and upper mantle. As new oceanic crust is created through mantle plumes, the iron-rich minerals in the upwelling magma are oriented to magnetic north insitu and solidified as the magma cools.

Since magnetic poles flip back and forth over time, the solidified magma due to mantle plumes at mid-oceanic ridges forms magnetic ‘stripes’ on the seafloor which provide a record of Earth’s magnetic history. These magnetic imprints on the ocean floor can be used as a sort of time machine, allowing past field changes to be reconstructed and showing the movement of tectonic plates from hundreds of million years ago until the present day.

It was not that long ago, say 12-15 years, when I was hard pressed regarding my research suggesting charged particles from inner and outer space had a direct causal impact on Earth’s outer and possibly inner cores. Peer reviews just hammered my assumed naïve hypothesis while professing there was simply no way galactic cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of course the best known solar rays such as solar flares or CMEs – could have even the slightest effect on Earth’s surface, let alone lithosphere, mantle, and outer core.

Beginning in early 2012, I turned my attention beyond the Sun-Earth connection, which formulated the true concept of what we now term as ‘Space Weather’. Note: I have been told that I along with Tony Phillips (NASA contractor) are the two who brought the term and understanding of space weather, into general popularity beginning in 1997.

1998 Equation:
Sunspots → Solar Flares (charged particles) → Magnetic Field Shift → Shifting Ocean and Jet Stream Currents → Extreme Weather and Human Disruption (mitch battros 1998).

In going beyond what charged particles such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and coronal holes – having their cyclical effects to Earth’s magnetic field and associated chain reaction (see 1998 Equation) in what I was able to successfully shift the long-held term “space climate” to space weather”. The reason for the need to change the term is due to the advanced spacecraft and land based instruments which could then be measured in “real-time”. Historically, the term “climate” had been identified in terms of decades, centuries, even millennia. The term “weather” is measured in hours, days, and weeks.

Now, the European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm mission has been used to measure the magnetic signals of tides from the ocean surface to the seabed, which offers a global picture of how the ocean flows at all depths. When salty ocean water flows through Earth’s magnetic field, an electric current is generated which in turn induces a magnetic signal. The field generated by tides is diminutive making it difficult to measure.

The new magnetic tidal signal measured by Swarm and historical data from the German CHAMP satellite, is important for ocean and climate modeling which is used to determine the electrical properties of the Earth’s lithosphere and upper mantle.

2012 Equation:
Galactic Cosmic Rays → Solar System → Solar Min. & Max. → Earth Magnetic Field → Mantle Plumes → Heated Oceans

Erwan Thebault from the University of Nantes in France said, “This is the highest resolution model of the lithospheric magnetic field ever produced. With a scale of 250 km, we can see structures in the crust like never before. This combined use of satellite and near-surface measurements gives us a new understanding of the crust beneath our feet, and will be of enormous value to science.”

Most of Earth’s magnetic field is generated deep within the outer core by an ocean of superheated, swirling liquid iron, but there are also much weaker sources of magnetism. The Swarm constellation has been used to yield some discoveries about these more elusive signals, such as that from Earth’s lithosphere. A small fraction of the magnetic field comes from magnetized rocks in the upper lithosphere, which includes Earth’s rigid crust and upper mantle.

This lithospheric magnetic field is weaker than the magnetosphere magnetic field and therefore difficult to detect from space. As new oceanic crust is created through mantle plumes, iron-rich minerals in the upwelling magma are oriented to magnetic north at the time and solidified as the magma cools.


Science Of Cycles Research Fund

Funds have diminished significantly as we come through the holidays and settle into spring. I’m roughly $3,000 short and becoming a little spooky to hold on to this venture. This is certainly not the time to slow down or shut down. In fact, it is the perfect time to gain wind and speed up. The latest news and research is coming in at virtually warp speed  – and it’s ringing bells in almost all areas of my research. It has taken roughly six years since my 2012 Equation to see the science community acknowledge and in some areas embrace my theory.

I can’t stop now, and need your help to keep us going. We truly are at the pinnacle as being one of the best able to absorb, reflect, gather the most important pieces research and new discovers – then to bring it forward in a manner that most fairly and well educated people can understand.

Your assistance has always been at the core of this model, without you we fail. Below is an example of how Science Of Cycles keeps you tuned in and knowledgeable of what we are discovering, and how some of these changes will affect our communities and ways of living.

In some ways my service is to translate what the science community puts out,  which may look something like this: aldkshfewoy934958t74389hdsofh – ldsf98wer98weusdoisd- 02375943yroidsf 0q4w5erofhclkldshf.2-3857rewiosdh -dsflkj3q975reifsdhokvas-;asdfbp423qywe598ruwesd
Then I write: We have just learned that galactic cosmic rays have increased over the last four year by a factor of three. It appears to be having a significant influence on our weakening magnetic field. And now more recently we have learned that during times of solar minimum these charged particles appear to be having an increased effect on Earth’s lithosphere, continuing down into the mantle.

lkasdhfweq9875239q,v8ewry0239759rweosdahlkf,asdhf2947ew593wesudi,asdhf2eyr2380ye9[23′   Okay. Now we’ve learned there is newly discovered ‘second magnetic field’ which sits upon the lower crust of our planet, and down into the lithosphere. This appears to have an effect on ocean tides and mantle plumes.

As mentioned in the above article, it was a real kick to hear that myself and Tony Phillips (NASA contractor) who ushered in the concept and actual words of what we now call ‘space weather’. Some of you might remember some of our spats back in the late 90’s when I would conduct an offensive against something he wrote; then soon after he would return the favor. But I claim we are still ahead and moving in the right direction, even if he does have a closer connection with NASA. Although he maintains his affiliation with the NASA boys, I have the freedom to maintain my connection with the ESA, NOAA, Royal Observatory, US Naval Observatory, NSF, NRC, American Meteorological Society – and to the other side, American Red Cross and Federal Management Office.

I hope your find this research and the presented cutting-edge news of great interest. Please use our method of open-ended donations allowing you to present any amount you choose. There is no limit; whether it be 1 dollar or 1,000 dollars, it goes directly into our work process of accumulation, presentation, and delivery.  **on the banner below to begin this simple process.      Cheers, Mitch


Solar Storm Slamming Earth After 3 Coronal Holes Open on the Sun

The Space Weather Prediction Center issued a “minor” storm watch for Tuesday and Wednesday “due to the arrival of a negative polarity coronal hole high-speed stream.” This comes on the heels of three solar flares last week.

A massive “hole” on the surface of the sun has unleashed a strong solar wind that scientists say may amp up the northern lights in some areas of the U.S. and could disrupt satellite communications over the next few days.

Data from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory revealed a vast region where the sun’s magnetic field has opened up, creating a gap in the sun’s outer atmosphere, called the corona. This region, also known as a coronal hole, allows charged particles to escape and flow toward Earth in an increased solar wind. As a result, the U.S. Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) has issued a geomagnetic storm watch for today and tomorrow (April 10 and 11).

“Arriving some hours earlier than expected, a stream of fast-moving solar wind has reached Earth,” according to, which regularly monitors space weather. “The gaseous material is flowing from a wide hole in the sun’s atmosphere, and could engulf our planet for several days.”

When wind hits the Earth’s atmosphere, it interacts with the planet’s magnetosphere, creating geomagnetic storms and enhanced auroras at the poles.

Space-weather forecasters predict that the class-G1 magnetic storm (a minor storm) may have a slight impact on Earth’s power grid systems, spacecraft and satellite operations. In addition, skywatchers in areas of the northern United States — such as northern Montana, North Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan and Maine — could see amplified auroral displays, according to the SWPC.

Geomagnetic storms can also affect marine mammals’ internal compasses, disorienting them enough to increase the likelihood of beach strandings.

Satellite Data Used to Detect Magma Flow in Volcanoes

Using satellite imaging, Penn State researchers for the first time identified a major magma supply into a reservoir extending almost 2 miles from the crater of a volcano in Nicaragua.

This shows that volcanoes can be fed magma through nearby underground channels and could help explain how volcanoes can erupt seemingly without warning because the active center of the volcano exhibits little deformation activity. The findings are published today (March 28) in Geophysical Research Letters.

A team led by Christelle Wauthier, assistant professor of geosciences and the Institute for CyberScience, used satellite data to chart movement of the ground surrounding Masaya Volcano, an active volcano and popular tourist destination near millions of residents near Managua.

Using Interferometric Synthetic-Aperture Radar (InSAR), a technique that uses radar satellite remote-sensing images, the team found ground swelling of more than 3 inches in a large area north of the crater. They used comparative data taken at different points in time to determine increases in magma supply. That work was corroborated by independent gas measurements taken at the crater by another team. Charting ground inflation near volcanoes is one way to determine the likelihood of a future volcanic eruption. InSAR can measure changes of one-third of an inch in the topography of the Earth.

Kirsten Stephens, a doctoral student in geosciences at Penn State, said InSAR data helped the team spot an increase in magma supply whose extent and amplitude can be missed or underestimated by ground-based sensors like GPS.

“When you’re using the satellite data you’re actually looking at a wide area as opposed to a GPS station, which is one point of measurement on the Earth,” Stephens said. “With satellite data, we’re looking at hundreds by hundreds of kilometers of Earth. With this better spatial coverage, we were able to image this inflating ground movement related to this 2015 lava lake appearance, which no one had captured before.” Wauthier said this research changes how we should monitor volcanoes.

“This shows that you should monitor close to the active vent area but also farther away to get a broader picture of the magma processes,” Wauthier said. “This is clear evidence showing magma can be supplied in large quantities further away from the point of eruption.”

Wauthier suspects the magma pathways are related to a pre-existing caldera structure that was formed during the collapse of the volcano 2,500 years ago. Masaya — like Wyoming’s Yellowstone Caldera — is not conical shaped. Past magmatic activity caused the roof of a reservoir to fall out, creating a depression at the point of eruption. Weak zones could have been formed during this event and could currently serve as magma pathways, Wauthier said, but it will take more research to determine that.

“The offset magma supply has a lot of consequences interpreting volcanic unrest, because if you would have been looking at the active event only, you might have missed most of the inflation,” Wauthier said. “You might not have realized that there was a lot of magma accumulating below the ground.”

The last time Masaya had a massive eruption was in 1772, and a lava lake has often been visible at the summit since then. However, the volcano has been showing signs of activity, with its most recent explosive eruption — which lasted for about a week — occurring in 2012. The 1772 eruption spewed ash and molten lava more than 30 miles. Today, about 2 million people live within 12 miles of the volcano.

“The volcano has the potential to be very explosive and create very big eruptions,” Wauthier said. “That’s why we focused on this area. Because there are so many people living around there, we want to understand what’s going on at that volcano and where the magma reservoirs and pathways are. If magma supply is increasing significantly, it’s a sign the volcano could become more active.”

Stephens said the team is now working on a follow-up study using their massive amounts of remote sensing data sets provided by seven satellites, together with ground-based measurements acquired by Associate Professor of Geosciences Pete LaFemina, to model the temporal evolution of the magma supply in more detail.

“Through inversion modeling you can then get an estimate of the change in volume,” Stephens said. “You can get a rough estimate of how much magma was supplied into the system within that time.”

How Life Started On Earth: Sulfur Dioxide Builds Up, Volcanoes Blow

Clouds of sulfur dioxide billowing from erupting volcanoes may have kickstarted a chemical process that led to life on Earth more than four billion years ago, according to new research.

Earth contained little oxygen and was mainly filled with carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen billions of years ago. The planet was also in a volatile state from all the asteroid collisions that marked its birth and was devoid of life.

But 3.9 billion years ago, the earliest organisms began to emerge. A new model proposed by researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics pinpoints a chemical process that might have led to the formation of life.

A paper published in Astrobiology describes a scenario that begins with volcanoes belching large concentrations of sulfur dioxide. These gases would have been dissolved into the rivers and lakes to create sulfites and bisulfites, types of sulfidic anions – sulfur compounds containing extra electrons giving them a slight negative charge.

Over time, these sulfites and bisulfites accumulated, and may have aided the chemical reactions needed to convert molecules in the water into Ribonucleic acid (RNA), an essential ingredient for life.

Sukrit Ranjan, first author of the paper and a postdoctoral researcher at MIT, said: “Prior to this work, people had no idea what levels of sulfidic anions were present in natural waters on early Earth; now we know what they were. This fundamentally changes our knowledge of early Earth and has had direct impact on laboratory studies of the origin of life.”

It was previously shown that nucleic acids, amino acids, and lipids – molecules needed to create proteins – can be created from hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, and ultraviolet light.

But it was unclear if the early conditions on Earth supported that process. “The origins-of-life field has traditionally been led by chemists, who try to figure out chemical pathways and see how nature might have operated to give us the origins of life,” Ranjan said.

“They do a really great job of that. What they don’t do, in as much detail is ask what were conditions on early Earth like before life? Could the scenarios they invoke have actually happened? They don’t know as much what the stage setting was.”

The new results show that the concentration of sulfidic anions produced from hydrogen sulfide was too low to spur on the chemical reactions needed to create the relevant biomolecules.

“We find that this mechanism could have supplied prebiotically relevant levels of [sulfur dioxide] derived anions, but not [hydrogen sulfide]-derived anions. Radiative transfer modelling suggests UV light would have remained abundant on the planet surface for all but the largest volcanic explosions,” the paper said.

The next stage of the experiment is to confirm if the sulfites and bisulfites in the early lakes and rivers from sulfur dioxide gas did lead to the creation of ribonucleotides, a class of molecules that make up RNA.

“In my view, the big next step is a prebiotically plausible synthesis of all 4 ribonucleotides (monomers of RNA) from the same precursors, under the same conditions. Right now, we have two of them, and almost the other two; taking the next step would be monumental,” Raman told The Register.

Magnitude 6.2 Quake Strikes Chile, No Damage Reported

SANTIAGO, CHILE – A strong 6.2 earthquake struck Chile’s central region on Tuesday. There were no immediate reports of injuries or damage.

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) said the quake struck about 34 miles (54 kilometers) southwest of Ovalle, Chile at 7:19 a.m. local time. The USGS said it was detected at a depth of 47 miles (76 kilometers).

The quake shook the capital of Santiago and other cities, causing buildings to sway. But Chile’s emergency services office said no damages to infrastructure were immediately reported and dismissed the possibility of a tsunami on the country’s long coast.

Chile is highly earthquake-prone. In 2010, a devastating 8.8-magnitude quake, one of the strongest ever recorded, and the tsunami it unleashed, killed more than 500 people and destroyed more than 200,000 homes.

Chile Rraises Alert On Rumbling Chillan Volcano

SANTIAGO – Chile has raised the alert at the Nevados de Chillan ahead of a possible eruption at one of the most active volcanoes in Chile, after plumes of white smoke and registered tremors were reported by authorities.

The National Geology and Mining Service (Sernageomin) issued an orange alert at the Nevados de Chillán Volcanic Complex, in the province of Ñuble.

Surrounded by dense forest and rivers, this volcanic complex, which comprises 17 craters, is located some 550 kilometers (300 miles) south of Santiago in the Bio Bio region of the Chilean Andes.

Since 2015, the alert level has remained at yellow — the second lowest of four levels — but since December, several eruptions of ash have suggested increased activity, prompting officials to raise the alert by one level, to orange.

On Friday, teams of police and experts from the state-run Sernageomin deployed to the site — which reaches an altitude of 3,200 meters (10,500 feet) — saw a huge column of white smoke rising from one of the craters.

Sernageomin also detected an unusual flow of lava in the crater which could spill over at any time, and data from 10 monitoring stations, which track the situation by the minute, registered some 4,000 tremors and around 800 explosions.

“The behavior has risen and if the tensions continue to rise, it is necessary to alert the population,” said Bío Bío mayor Jorge Ulloa.

Unable to determine exactly when an eruption is likely, experts are constantly monitoring the situation from the volcanic observatory in Temuco, a city in the southern Andes, some 600 kilometers south of Santiago.

Between 1861 and 2003, Chillan erupted around 10 times, with varying magnitudes on the Volcanic Explosivity Index.

The last recorded instance was in 1973, although the eruption caused no deaths or major damage.

Several ski resorts dot the slopes of Chillan, a popular tourist destination which boasts a clutch of luxury hotels. There are no major urban centers in the area.

Chile has about 90 active volcanoes.