JUST IN: Watch for Increased Geomagnetic Flux Approaching Autumn Equinox

Starting this week Earth’s magnetic field is vulnerable to enhanced charged particles making its way through Earth’s magnetic field as we approach Autumn Equinox. Since our seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth’s axis relative to its orbital plane, the equinox roughly marks the transition from longer periods of daylight to shorter ones or vice versa.

During this time an occurrence known as the Russell-McPherron effect; is a hypothesis identifying geomagnetic activity is more intense around fall equinox when the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is away the Sun.

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Science Of Cycles keeps you tuned-in and knowledgeable of what we are discovering, and how some of these changes will affect our communities and ways of living.

JUST IN: Historic Space Weather Could Clarify What’s Next

“Historic space weather may help us understand what’s coming next, according to new research by the University of Warwick.”

Actually, those of you who have followed Earth Changes TV, Earth Changes Media, and Science Of Cycles over the years, know what is mentioned in this ‘new’ research – is anything but ‘new’. Having said this, I am grateful that so many scientists around the world have come to affirm what happens in and around our solar system, does in fact have an influence on our planet Earth and those who reside on it.

Although this research addresses space weather as it relates to the Sun-Earth connection, I can assure you space weather will encompass our solar systems connection to our galaxy Milky Way within the next few years… (wipe smirk off face) however, SOC’s published research is already there – and has been since 2012 as identified in my 2012 updated equation. (see below)

This symbiotic causation is driven by charged particles. It has now become known as “space weather.” My research spans back to 1997, when I began to interview some of the highest esteemed scientists from agencies such as NASA, NOAA, ESA, US Naval Observatory, Royal Observatory – along with several professors from highly qualified universities such as Stanford, MIT, Johns Hopkins, Caltec, and UCLA.

Perhaps the most important word in this ‘new’ research is the word “historic”. This is to say scientists have gathered enough data to observe cycles and patterns. In doing so, the day is inching its way closer to better predict and prepare for mini and mega cycle events. And of course…another way to put it is the “ScienceOfCycles.”

Professor Sandra Chapman, from Warwick’s Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, led a project which charted the space weather in previous solar cycles across the last half century, and discovered an underlying repeatable pattern in how space weather activity changes with the solar cycle.

This exciting research shows that space weather and the activity of the Sun are not entirely random-and may constrain how likely large weather events are in future cycles. This breakthrough will allow better understanding and planning for space weather, and for any future threats it may pose to the Earth.

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Science Of Cycles Research Fund

Science Of Cycles keeps you tuned in and knowledgeable of what we are discovering, and how some of these changes will affect our communities and ways of living.

 

‘Archived’ Heat Has Reached Deep Into The Arctic Interior, Researchers Say

Arctic sea ice isn’t just threatened by the melting of ice around its edges, a new study has found: Warmer water that originated hundreds of miles away has penetrated deep into the interior of the Arctic.

That “archived” heat, currently trapped below the surface, has the potential to melt the region’s entire sea-ice pack if it reaches the surface, researchers say.

The study appears online Aug. 29 in the journal Science Advances.

“We document a striking ocean warming in one of the main basins of the interior Arctic Ocean, the Canadian Basin,” said lead author Mary-Louise Timmermans, a professor of geology and geophysics at Yale University.

The upper ocean in the Canadian Basin has seen a two-fold increase in heat content over the past 30 years, the researchers said. They traced the source to waters hundreds of miles to the south, where reduced sea ice has left the surface ocean more exposed to summer solar warming. In turn, Arctic winds are driving the warmer water north, but below the surface waters.

“This means the effects of sea-ice loss are not limited to the ice-free regions themselves, but also lead to increased heat accumulation in the interior of the Arctic Ocean that can have climate effects well beyond the summer season,” Timmermans said. “Presently this heat is trapped below the surface layer. Should it be mixed up to the surface, there is enough heat to entirely melt the sea-ice pack that covers this region for most of the year.”

Part II – Lunar and Solar Eclipse and Related Earth Changing Events

First, thank you for your well wishes, and a pleasant surprise from some who responded to my addressing the love I have for my work and in ways reflects that of my marriage and family.

“I think you know I love what I do, but what’s really rewarding is when it loves me back. I attribute my thoughts to that of a healthy marriage. To give a hundred percent is a good thing, but many of us who are married, add a bit more if you have kids, realize that sometimes a hundred percent is not enough. This is to say; even on those times when you are absolutely right on this, that, or the other, it’s better to let your partner be right too.”

This was written without conscience, which ironically, defines its literal meaning. This gives me hope that just maybe my inside matches my outside. So it really touched me to see your response, and I’m guessing it must have touched a part of you, or at least caused you to pause if only for a second or minute. If those of you who commented bringing your thoughts to my attention, I would not have noticed any such possible deeper understanding. Thanks

But to maintain full disclosure…I do not always measure up to this worthy principle mentioned above. Nonetheless, I do hold it as an ideal, trying at most turns to maintain it as my default. Oh, and btw, the piggy bank is still pretty empty. Go to the following link to help keep us alive: CLICK HERE

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Okay, now let’s get to the science of things:

You will see a list of significant earthquakes following below. But first, let me highlight the ’cause’ of events as it relates to both Lunar and Solar eclipse. My research points to a 14 day prior and 14 day post window lunar or solar events.

As it relates to a lunar eclipse, the stimulant which precipitates events such as earthquakes and volcanoes is the ‘fluid displacement’ initiated by gravitational tugs causing unusual high tides placing additional weight (pressure) on tectonic plates causing slippage.

The term fluid displacement is not just related to oceans; it includes fluids such as magma, oil, liquefied sediment, and even gas processes. It is the expansion [or contraction] of fluids on tectonic plates which cause the increase of larger earthquakes or volcanic eruptions.

As it relates to solar eclipse, it is the sudden temperature fluctuation which can cause a chain reaction. By presenting a sudden and rapid shift in both the jet stream and ocean currents, this in-turn can cause a destabilizing of set seasonal patterns. Although temperature flux may be subtle, if tectonics are at their tipping point, it would not take much to set them off. Additionally, the rapid temperature change can cause an expansion and contraction of Earth’s lithosphere, even if ever so slight, can set off a chain reaction of tectonic slippage resulting in significant earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Remember, the majority of volcanoes are submarine (ocean bottom); hence the rapid shift in ocean temperatures is also prone to set off a rippling effect which is often unpredictable due to the spider webbing tentacles which connect a system of mantle plumes and volcanoes.

Significant Earthquakes Between JULY 15TH – AUGUST 19TH

2018-08-19  T15:16:34.100Z  5.9  8km ESE of Sembalunbumbung, Indonesia

2018-08-19  T14:56:28.090Z  6.9  2km S of Belanting, Indonesia

2018-08-19  T04:28:59.760Z  6.8  282km ESE of Lambasa, Fiji

2018-08-19  T04:10:21.570Z  6.3  6km NE of Sembalunlawang, Indonesia

2018-08-19  T00:23:02.740Z  6.3  259km NNE of Ndoi Island, Fiji

2018-08-19  T00:19:37.970Z  8.2  280km NNE of Ndoi Island, Fiji

2018-08-17  T23:22:24.900Z  6.1  14km N of Golfito, Costa Rica

2018-08-17  T15:35:02.070Z  6.5  109km NNW of Kampungbajo, Indonesia

2018-08-16  T18:22:53.350Z  6.3  250km SE of Iwo Jima, Japan

2018-08-15  T21:56:54.780Z  6.6  50km S of Tanaga Volcano, Alaska

2018-08-14  T03:29:53.440Z  6.1  126km NE of Bristol Island, South Sandwich Islands

2018-08-12  T21:15:01.841Z  6.1  65km SSW of Kaktovik, Alaska

2018-08-12  T14:58:54.286Z  6.3  90km SW of Kaktovik, Alaska

2018-08-10  T18:12:06.880Z  5.9  267km SSW of Severo-Kuril’sk, Russia

2018-08-09  T05:25:31.910Z  5.9  3km SE of Todo, Indonesia

2018-08-05  T11:46:38.190Z  6.9  0km SW of Loloan, Indonesia

2018-07-28  T22:47:38.740Z  6.4  5km WNW of Obelobel, Indonesia

2018-07-28  T17:07:23.370Z 6.0    149km N of Palue, Indonesia

2018-07-23  T10:36:00.330Z 5.9  Central Mid-Atlantic Ridge

2018-07-21  T20:56:19.940Z  5.9  Southeast Indian Ridge

2018-07-19  T18:30:32.710Z  6.0  91km W of Kandrian, Papua New Guinea

2018-07-17  T07:02:53.020Z  6.0  116km SE of Lata, Solomon Islands

2018-07-15  T13:09:16.470Z  6.0  159km SSE of Sayhut, Yemen

2018-07-15  T01:57:19.410Z  6.0  137km SSE of Sayhut, Yemen

Part III – identifies the latest in cosmic ray discoveries and its effect on our galaxy-solar system-Sun-Earth. There will be many surprises.

Science Of Cycles News and Research Support

Volcano Eruptions At Different Latitudes Impact Sea Surface Temperature Differently

Volcanic eruptions are among the most important natural causes of climate change, playing a leading role over the past millennium. Injections of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere reduce the incoming solar radiation, in turn cooling the surface. As a natural external forcing to the Earth’s climate system, the impact of volcanic aerosols on the climate has been of great concern to the scientific society and the public.

In recent years, scientists have found that there is a relationship between volcanic eruptions and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on reconstructions and model simulations, which is manifested in increased/decreased sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the equatorial Pacific. Since ENSO influences the global climate through atmospheric teleconnections, it is of great importance to understand the influence of volcanic eruptions on ENSO phase changes. Many studies have shown the phenomenon, but the reasons remain ambiguous.

Recently, Zuo Meng, a doctoral student from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, along with her mentors Prof. Zhou Tianjun and associate Prof. Man Wenmin, used the CESM Last Millennium Ensemble (LME) simulations, which has the largest ensemble of LM simulations, to investigate the impacts of northern, tropical and southern volcanic eruptions on the tropical Pacific SST. Analysis of the simulations indicates that the Pacific features a significant El Niño-like warm SST anomaly five to 10 months after northern and tropical eruptions, with the Niño3 index peaks at the winter of next year. Compared with northern eruptions, the warm SST anomaly is mainly confined to the eastern Pacific with a stronger intensity following tropical eruptions.

Following southern eruptions, the Pacific shows a weaker warming anomaly over the eastern Pacific, and the time at which the Niño3 index reaches its peak is about four months earlier than that after northern and tropical eruptions. They further advance the underlying mechanism: The shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) can explain the El Niño-like response to northern eruptions, which is not applicable for tropical or southern eruptions. Instead, the westerly anomaly in the western Pacific triggered by the ocean dynamical thermostat mechanism can explain the divergent SST responses following three types of eruptions.

“In contrast to previous works on the impacts of volcanic eruptions on SST, our results are based on the CESM-LME simulation. From a modeling perspective, ensemble simulations are the most helpful method to study volcano-forced responses. Most importantly, the different mechanisms of SST response to three types of eruptions can help us better understand the divergent formation processes of SST anomalies,” said first author Ms. Zuo Meng. “We hope the results are useful for the mitigation and adaptation of climate change after volcanic eruptions and the associated socioeconomic impacts, and can also provide insight for understanding future SST changes induced by large volcanic eruptions.”

Corresponding author Prof. Man Wenmi said, “Differences are also seen among different models. The difference may result from the uncertainties in the reconstruction of external forcing volcanic aerosol data, model bias, and also the initial condition of volcanic eruptions. We hope to deepen our understanding of the tropical Pacific responses to different volcanic forcing and the physical processes by using the VolMIP experiments which has defined a coordinated set of idealized volcanic perturbation experiments to be carried out in alignment with the CMIP6 protocol in the near future.”

What Makes Diamonds Blue? Boron From Oceanic Crustal Remnants In Earth’s Lower Mantle

Blue diamonds — like the world-famous Hope Diamond at the National Museum of Natural History — formed up to four times deeper in the Earth’s mantle than most other diamonds, according to new work published on the cover of Nature.

“These so-called type IIb diamonds are tremendously valuable, making them hard to get access to for scientific research purposes,” explained lead author Evan Smith of the Gemological Institute of America, adding, “and it is very rare to find one that contains inclusions, which are tiny mineral crystals trapped inside the diamond.”

Inclusions are remnants of the minerals from the rock in which the diamond crystallized and can tell scientists about the conditions under which it formed.

Type IIb diamonds owe their blue color to the element boron, an element that is mostly found on the Earth’s surface. But analysis of the trapped mineral grains in 46 blue diamonds examined over two years indicate that they crystallized in rocks that only exist under the extreme pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth’s lower mantle.

The research group — which included Carnegie’s Steven Shirey, Emma Bullock, and Jianhua Wang — determined that blue diamonds form at least as deep as the transition zone between the upper and lower mantle — or between 410 and 660 kilometers below the surface. Several of the samples even showed clear evidence that they came from deeper than 660 kilometers, meaning they originated in the lower mantle. By contrast, most other gem diamonds come up from between 150 and 200 kilometers.

So how did the boron get down there if it is an element known for residing predominately in the shallow crust?

According to the hypothesis put forth by the research group, it came from seafloor that was conveyed down into the Earth’s mantle when one tectonic plate slid beneath another — a process known as subduction.

The new study proposes that boron from the Earth’s surface was incorporated into water-rich minerals like serpentine, which crystallized during geochemical reactions between seawater and the rocks of the oceanic plate. This reaction between rock and water is a process called serpentinization and can extend deep into the seafloor, even into the oceanic plate’s mantle portion.

The group’s discovery reveals that the water-bearing minerals travel far deeper into the mantle than previously thought, which indicates the possibility of a super-deep hydrological cycle.

“Most previous studies of super-deep diamonds had been carried out on diamonds of low quality,” Shirey said. “But between our 2016 finding that the world’s biggest and most-valuable colorless diamonds formed from metallic liquid deep inside Earth’s mantle and this new discovery that blue diamonds also have super-deep origins, we now know that the finest gem-quality diamonds come from the farthest down in our planet.”

Scientists Discover Earth’s Youngest Banded Iron Formation In Western China

The banded iron formation, located in western China, has been conclusively dated as Cambrian in age. Approximately 527 million years old, this formation is young by comparison to the majority of discoveries to date. The deposition of banded iron formations, which began approximately 3.8 billion years ago, had long been thought to terminate before the beginning of the Cambrian Period at 540 million years ago.

“This is critical, as it is the first observation of a Precambrian-like banded iron formation that is Early Cambrian in age. This offers the most conclusive evidence for the presence of widespread iron-rich conditions at a time, confirming what has recently been suggested from geochemical proxies,” said Kurt Konhauser, professor in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and co-author. Konhauser supervised the research that was led by Zhiquan Li, a PhD candidate from Beijing while on exchange at UAlberta.

The Early Cambrian is known for the rise of animals, so the level of oxygen in seawater should have been closer to near modern levels. “This is important as the availability of oxygen has long been thought to be a handbrake on the evolution of complex life, and one that should have been alleviated by the Early Cambrian,” says Leslie Robbins, a PhD candidate in Konhauser’s lab and a co-author on the paper.

The researchers compared the geological characteristics and geochemistry to ancient and modern samples to find an analogue for their deposition. The team relied on the use of rare earth element patterns to demonstrate that the deposit formed in, or near, a chemocline in a stratified iron-rich basin.

“Future studies will aim to quantify the full extent of these Cambrian banded iron formations in China and whether similar deposits can be found elsewhere,” says Kurt Konhauser.