Announcement: What are Sunspots and Where Did They Go

Note: Join me tonight on Coast to Coast AM radio. I will do a news brief on the subject of this article. I will also discuss the dynamics of cosmic rays influx during solar minimum and its influence on Earth and us.    Radio Stations: Click Here

Sunspots are relatively cool regions of hot gas on the Sun’s surface, prevented by intense magnetic fields from plunging back into the depths of the Sun for a reheat. These spots wax and wane in a cycle that averages 11 years.

During the peak of the cycle, the Sun is at its most active, generating solar flares, prominence, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and coronal hole outbursts. All of these can occur at any time during the solar cycle, but they are most frequent during its peak.

The Sun and stars are powered by fusion rather than fission. The core of the sun is dominated by hydrogen and at temperatures where hydrogen fusion is possible. Evidence for a potential long-term slowdown or even halt to sunspots for a period of time come through three sets of measurements.

Drawing on 13 years of sunspot data, National Solar Observatory researchers Matt Penn and William Livingston have documented a consistent decline in the strength of the magnetic fields associated with sunspots. If the strength of those fields drops below a certain level, the spots vanish.

If the decline in magnetic-field strength continues at its current pace, Dr. Penn says, cycle 25 may have no sunspots at all.”

Hill’s group at the National Solar Observatory used measurements of the Sun’s acoustic signals to gauge the movement of high-speed jet streams of solar material inside the Sun’s northern and southern hemisphere. These jet streams tend to form at high latitudes and migrate toward the equator over the course of a sunspot cycle. And they tend to be the spawning grounds for sunspots.

Typically, new jets, the foundations for a new sunspot maximum, form even before the existing jets reach the equator and vanish, Hill explains. The new jets should have started forming in 2008. They have yet to appear.

Hubble Detects Helium In The Atmosphere Of An Exoplanet For The First Time

Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have detected helium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet WASP-107b. This is the first time this element has been detected in the atmosphere of a planet outside the Solar System. The discovery demonstrates the ability to use infrared spectra to study exoplanet extended atmospheres.

The international team of astronomers, led by Jessica Spake, a PhD student at the University of Exeter in the UK, used Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 to discover helium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet WASP-107b This is the first detection of its kind.

Spake explains the importance of the discovery: “Helium is the second-most common element in the Universe after hydrogen. It is also one of the main constituents of the planets Jupiter and Saturn in our Solar System. However, up until now helium had not been detected on exoplanets — despite searches for it.”

The team made the detection by analysing the infrared spectrum of the atmosphere of WASP-107b. Previous detections of extended exoplanet atmospheres have been made by studying the spectrum at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths; this detection therefore demonstrates that exoplanet atmospheres can also be studied at longer wavelengths.

“The strong signal from helium we measured demonstrates a new technique to study upper layers of exoplanet atmospheres in a wider range of planets,” says Spake “Current methods, which use ultraviolet light, are limited to the closest exoplanets. We know there is helium in the Earth’s upper atmosphere and this new technique may help us to detect atmospheres around Earth-sized exoplanets — which is very difficult with current technology.”

WASP-107b is one of the lowest density planets known: While the planet is about the same size as Jupiter, it has only 12% of Jupiter’s mass. The exoplanet is about 200 light-years from Earth and takes less than six days to orbit its host star.

The amount of helium detected in the atmosphere of WASP-107b is so large that its upper atmosphere must extend tens of thousands of kilometres out into space. This also makes it the first time that an extended atmosphere has been discovered at infrared wavelengths.

Since its atmosphere is so extended, the planet is losing a significant amount of its atmospheric gases into space — between ~0.1-4% of its atmosphere’s total mass every billion years [2].

As far back as the year 2000, it was predicted that helium would be one of the most readily-detectable gases on giant exoplanets, but until now, searches were unsuccessful.

David Sing, co-author of the study also from the University of Exeter, concludes: “Our new method, along with future telescopes such as the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope/, will allow us to analyse atmospheres of exoplanets in far greater detail than ever before.”

BREAKING NEWS: Study Released by Institute of Physics Journal Confirms Battros 1998 and 2012 Equation

This new research may be the most hard-hitting conformation of my 15 years of research – initially providing evidence of the Sun-Earth connection and Earth’s weather, then later in my studies adding evidence of a Galaxy-Sun-Earth connection. This research has been well documented in my books “Solar Rain” 2005 and “Global Warming Disguise” 2007. Further research is currently documented in my third book (in progress) providing evidence of long-term cyclical events highlighting the reduction of Earth’s magnetic field and the pathway to a full magnetic reversal.

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New Equation: (2012)
Increase Charged Particles Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

I wish to present a brief thank you to all those who have supported my work over the years; and perhaps more importantly, the support of my cause. Forward looking research comes with a challenging task to stay focused – provide substantial evidence which can survive peer review –  and the support of people like you who continuously encouraged me to “stay with it”. Without you, I would have been just another person with great ideas.

Equation: (1998)
Sunspots → Solar Flares (charged particles) → Magnetic Field Shift → Shifting Ocean and Jet Stream Currents → Extreme Weather and Human Disruption (mitch battros 1998).

Scientists have discovered new evidence showing high-speed solar wind streams can increase extreme weather down on Earth. Researchers from Reading University Department of Meteorology – have discovered evidence that extreme weather events are triggered by charged particles from the Sun in addition to galactic cosmic rays from our galaxy “Milky Way”.

“Cosmic rays, tiny particles from across the Universe accelerated close to the speed of light, have been thought to play a role in weather down on Earth” says Lead author of the study, Dr Chris Scott.  This new finding goes beyond the well acknowledged interplay of GCR’s (galactic cosmic rays) influence on Earth’s atmosphere. “We have provided new evidence that charged particles emitted from our Sun also has a major role in Earth’s weather.”

The results of these new findings, which were published in the scientific journal Institute of Physics Environmental Research, could prove crucial for weather forecasters since solar wind streams rotate with the Sun at regular intervals which accelerate charged particles into Earth’s atmosphere. These streams can be tracked by spacecraft offering the potential for predicting the severity of hazardous weather events on Earth many weeks in advance.

Professor Giles Harrison, head of Reading’s Department of Meteorology and co-author of the ERL article, said: “In increasing our understanding of weather on Earth we are learning more about its important links with space weather. Bringing the topics of Earth Weather and Space Weather ever closer requires more collaborations between atmospheric and space scientists, in which the University of Reading is already leading the way.”

“As the Sun rotates every 27 days these high-speed streams of particles wash past our planet with predictable regularity. Such information could prove useful when producing long-range weather forecasts.”

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Science Of Cycles Research Fund

Your assistance has always been at the core of this model, without you we fail. Science Of Cycles keeps you tuned-in and knowledgeable of what we are discovering, and how some of these changes will affect our communities and ways of living. We are maintaining an an open-ended donation of any amount you choose.  **Click on the banner below to begin this simple process.      Cheers, Mitch

 

JUST IN: Recent Climate Summit Advocates ‘Natural Factors’

Last week the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History held a three-day Earth’s Temperature History Symposium that brought teachers, journalists, researchers and the public together to enhance their understanding of paleoclimate. During an evening lecture, Gavin Schmidt, climate modeler and director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and Richard Alley, a world-famous geologist at Pennsylvania State University, explained how scientists use Earth’s past climates to improve the climate models we use to predict our future.

Scientists have acknowledged what are the main natural factors that shape climate. They include volcanic eruptions whose ash blocks the Sun, precession of Earth’s orbit, solar minimum and maximum cycles, shifts in ocean and jet stream currents, sea ice, tectonic plates and mantle plumes, fluctuations of the ozone hole, and blasts of cosmic rays.

To know where you are going, you have to know where you have been. That is particularly true for climate scientists, who need to understand the full range of the planetary and atmospheric shifts in order to chart the course of future events.

Earth records climate changes in geologic layers such as fossil trees, fossil shells, and tree rings. The most valuable fossils found in sediment cores are from tiny animals with a calcium carbonate shell, called foraminifera. Foraminifera (forams for short) are single-celled protists with shells. Their shells are also referred to as tests because in some forms the protoplasm covers the exterior of the shell.

A large deposit of microfossils of plants and animals can also tell scientists about shifting ocean currents and jet stream. Ocean plants and animals use the nutrients at the surface of the ocean, die, and then carry the nutrients with them as they sink to the sea floor. Ocean cores hint at patterns of upwelling when one contains a particularly thick layer of microfossils, especially diatoms, from the same time. Since upwelling currents are largely driven by the wind, these patterns also tell scientists something about wind and weather patterns.

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Science Of Cycles Research Fund

We have received $210 towards our goal of $3,000. Thank you to those who have help support our services. The latest news and research is coming in at virtually warp speed  – and it’s ringing bells in almost all areas of my research. It has taken roughly six years since my 2012 Equation to see the science community acknowledge and in some areas embrace my theory.

Your assistance has always been at the core of this model, without you we fail. Below is an example of how Science Of Cycles keeps you tuned in and knowledgeable of what we are discovering, and how some of these changes will affect our communities and ways of living.

I hope you find this research and the presented cutting-edge news of great interest. Please use our method of open-ended donations allowing you to present any amount you choose. There is no limit; whether it be 1 dollar or 1,000 dollars, it goes directly into our work process of accumulation, presentation, and delivery.  **on the banner below to begin this simple process.      Cheers, Mitch

 

BREAKING NEWS: Cosmic Rays Linked to Increased Mortality

The intensity of secondary cosmic rays reaching Earth is significantly correlated with mortality rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. That’s according to researchers in Brazil and the US.

https://scienceofcycles.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Equation-2012_.png
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Looking at data over the past 60 years, the team found that the mortality rates for all diseases they identified were slightly, yet significantly, greater during periods of diminished solar activity, when cosmic rays are more intense, and slightly lower during heightened solar activity, when cosmic rays are less intense.

The link was stronger than the researchers expected. “I believed we could find significant results but we got surprised,” said Carolina Vieira of the University of São Paulo. Their results have been published in the scientific journal Environmental Research Letters.

Cosmic rays consist of charged subatomic particles, mostly protons, but also helium nuclei and other particles – travelling near the speed of light, with energies upwards of 1 MeV. Originating mainly in the remnants of supernovae in our cosmic neighborhood, they collide with gas molecules in our atmosphere, generating a cascade of secondary rays that can penetrate materials, including the human body.

Matter and electromagnetic fields emitted by the Sun partially protect us from cosmic rays. But the Sun’s activity rises and falls in an 11-year cycle, which means the intensity of secondary cosmic rays on Earth also follows 11-year cycles. Currently, the Sun is approaching a minimum in activity.

More locally, the intensity of secondary cosmic rays rises with latitude and altitude, so that in a city such as São Paulo, 23 ° south of the equator and 800 m above sea level, doses of secondary cosmic rays reach 0.2 nano-sieverts a year. For comparison, the International Commission for Radiological Protection allows uranium miners to receive 10,000 times more radiation a year.

“Although [the value for secondary cosmic rays in São Paolo] may seem to be relatively low, our results show that typical variation of cosmic-ray exposures to susceptible individuals, possibly radio-sensitive individuals, can lead to a highly significant increase of total mortality and specific mortality rates,” said Vieira.

Vieira was motivated to look into the possible health effects of secondary cosmic rays after she heard that in 2008 some children in her son’s school in São Paolo caught scarlet fever; a year later, the world suffered a swine-flu pandemic based on the same H1N1 influenza virus as the infamous 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic. The events led her to wonder whether there could be an environmental agent changing the DNA of microorganisms to re-introduce certain diseases cyclically. “I decided to research what was going on,” she recalled.

Vieira and colleagues analyzed the correlation between the annual flux of secondary cosmic ray-induced ionization and various mortality rates in São Paolo using data from the period 1951–2012. Multivariate linear regression allowed them to show that the cosmic-ray ionization was correlated with total mortality, infectious disease mortality, maternal mortality, and perinatal mortality rates, with a p value of less than 0.001 – a p value less than 0.05 being the traditional threshold for significance.

“Annually, ~336 total deaths may be attributed to [secondary cosmic-ray] exposure in the city of São Paulo,” the researchers write.

They do not yet know the mechanism by which secondary cosmic rays could increase mortality rates, and are considering alternative explanations for the correlation. Since 2015, Vieira and colleagues have also been studying the possible interactions of cosmic rays, air pollutants and human health in US cities.

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Science Of Cycles Research Fund

Funds have diminished significantly as we come through the holidays and settle into spring. I’m roughly $3,000 short and becoming a little spooky to hold on to this venture. This is certainly not the time to slow down or shut down. In fact, it is the perfect time to gain wind and speed up. The latest news and research is coming in at virtually warp speed  – and it’s ringing bells in almost all areas of my research. It has taken roughly six years since my 2012 Equation to see the science community acknowledge and in some areas embrace my theory.

I can’t stop now, and need your help to keep us going. We truly are at the pinnacle as being one of the best able to absorb, reflect, gather the most important pieces research and new discovers – then to bring it forward in a manner that most fairly and well educated people can understand.

Your assistance has always been at the core of this model, without you we fail. Below is an example of how Science Of Cycles keeps you tuned in and knowledgeable of what we are discovering, and how some of these changes will affect our communities and ways of living.

I hope your find this research and the presented cutting-edge news of great interest. Please use our method of open-ended donations allowing you to present any amount you choose. There is no limit; whether it be 1 dollar or 1,000 dollars, it goes directly into our work process of accumulation, presentation, and delivery.  **on the banner below to begin this simple process.      Cheers, Mitch

 

BREAKING NEWS: New Paradigm Develops of Earth’s Magnetic Field ‘Above and Below’

Just released, new imaging identifying never before discovery of magnetic fields which sit just above the lithosphere, which includes Earth’s rigid crust and upper mantle. As new oceanic crust is created through mantle plumes, the iron-rich minerals in the upwelling magma are oriented to magnetic north insitu and solidified as the magma cools.

Since magnetic poles flip back and forth over time, the solidified magma due to mantle plumes at mid-oceanic ridges forms magnetic ‘stripes’ on the seafloor which provide a record of Earth’s magnetic history. These magnetic imprints on the ocean floor can be used as a sort of time machine, allowing past field changes to be reconstructed and showing the movement of tectonic plates from hundreds of million years ago until the present day.

It was not that long ago, say 12-15 years, when I was hard pressed regarding my research suggesting charged particles from inner and outer space had a direct causal impact on Earth’s outer and possibly inner cores. Peer reviews just hammered my assumed naïve hypothesis while professing there was simply no way galactic cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of course the best known solar rays such as solar flares or CMEs – could have even the slightest effect on Earth’s surface, let alone lithosphere, mantle, and outer core.

Beginning in early 2012, I turned my attention beyond the Sun-Earth connection, which formulated the true concept of what we now term as ‘Space Weather’. Note: I have been told that I along with Tony Phillips (NASA contractor) are the two who brought the term and understanding of space weather, into general popularity beginning in 1997.

1998 Equation:
Sunspots → Solar Flares (charged particles) → Magnetic Field Shift → Shifting Ocean and Jet Stream Currents → Extreme Weather and Human Disruption (mitch battros 1998).

In going beyond what charged particles such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and coronal holes – having their cyclical effects to Earth’s magnetic field and associated chain reaction (see 1998 Equation) in what I was able to successfully shift the long-held term “space climate” to space weather”. The reason for the need to change the term is due to the advanced spacecraft and land based instruments which could then be measured in “real-time”. Historically, the term “climate” had been identified in terms of decades, centuries, even millennia. The term “weather” is measured in hours, days, and weeks.

Now, the European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm mission has been used to measure the magnetic signals of tides from the ocean surface to the seabed, which offers a global picture of how the ocean flows at all depths. When salty ocean water flows through Earth’s magnetic field, an electric current is generated which in turn induces a magnetic signal. The field generated by tides is diminutive making it difficult to measure.

The new magnetic tidal signal measured by Swarm and historical data from the German CHAMP satellite, is important for ocean and climate modeling which is used to determine the electrical properties of the Earth’s lithosphere and upper mantle.

2012 Equation:
Galactic Cosmic Rays → Solar System → Solar Min. & Max. → Earth Magnetic Field → Mantle Plumes → Heated Oceans

Erwan Thebault from the University of Nantes in France said, “This is the highest resolution model of the lithospheric magnetic field ever produced. With a scale of 250 km, we can see structures in the crust like never before. This combined use of satellite and near-surface measurements gives us a new understanding of the crust beneath our feet, and will be of enormous value to science.”

Most of Earth’s magnetic field is generated deep within the outer core by an ocean of superheated, swirling liquid iron, but there are also much weaker sources of magnetism. The Swarm constellation has been used to yield some discoveries about these more elusive signals, such as that from Earth’s lithosphere. A small fraction of the magnetic field comes from magnetized rocks in the upper lithosphere, which includes Earth’s rigid crust and upper mantle.

This lithospheric magnetic field is weaker than the magnetosphere magnetic field and therefore difficult to detect from space. As new oceanic crust is created through mantle plumes, iron-rich minerals in the upwelling magma are oriented to magnetic north at the time and solidified as the magma cools.

_______________

Science Of Cycles Research Fund

Funds have diminished significantly as we come through the holidays and settle into spring. I’m roughly $3,000 short and becoming a little spooky to hold on to this venture. This is certainly not the time to slow down or shut down. In fact, it is the perfect time to gain wind and speed up. The latest news and research is coming in at virtually warp speed  – and it’s ringing bells in almost all areas of my research. It has taken roughly six years since my 2012 Equation to see the science community acknowledge and in some areas embrace my theory.

I can’t stop now, and need your help to keep us going. We truly are at the pinnacle as being one of the best able to absorb, reflect, gather the most important pieces research and new discovers – then to bring it forward in a manner that most fairly and well educated people can understand.

Your assistance has always been at the core of this model, without you we fail. Below is an example of how Science Of Cycles keeps you tuned in and knowledgeable of what we are discovering, and how some of these changes will affect our communities and ways of living.

In some ways my service is to translate what the science community puts out,  which may look something like this: aldkshfewoy934958t74389hdsofh – ldsf98wer98weusdoisd- 02375943yroidsf 0q4w5erofhclkldshf.2-3857rewiosdh -dsflkj3q975reifsdhokvas-;asdfbp423qywe598ruwesd
Then I write: We have just learned that galactic cosmic rays have increased over the last four year by a factor of three. It appears to be having a significant influence on our weakening magnetic field. And now more recently we have learned that during times of solar minimum these charged particles appear to be having an increased effect on Earth’s lithosphere, continuing down into the mantle.

lkasdhfweq9875239q,v8ewry0239759rweosdahlkf,asdhf2947ew593wesudi,asdhf2eyr2380ye9[23′   Okay. Now we’ve learned there is newly discovered ‘second magnetic field’ which sits upon the lower crust of our planet, and down into the lithosphere. This appears to have an effect on ocean tides and mantle plumes.

As mentioned in the above article, it was a real kick to hear that myself and Tony Phillips (NASA contractor) who ushered in the concept and actual words of what we now call ‘space weather’. Some of you might remember some of our spats back in the late 90’s when I would conduct an offensive against something he wrote; then soon after he would return the favor. But I claim we are still ahead and moving in the right direction, even if he does have a closer connection with NASA. Although he maintains his affiliation with the NASA boys, I have the freedom to maintain my connection with the ESA, NOAA, Royal Observatory, US Naval Observatory, NSF, NRC, American Meteorological Society – and to the other side, American Red Cross and Federal Management Office.

I hope your find this research and the presented cutting-edge news of great interest. Please use our method of open-ended donations allowing you to present any amount you choose. There is no limit; whether it be 1 dollar or 1,000 dollars, it goes directly into our work process of accumulation, presentation, and delivery.  **on the banner below to begin this simple process.      Cheers, Mitch

 

Newly-Discovered Planet Is Hot, Metallic And Dense As Mercury

A hot, metallic, Earth-sized planet with a density similar to Mercury — situated 339 light years away — has been detected and characterised by a global team of astronomers, including the University of Warwick.

Named K2-229b, the planet is almost 20% larger than Earth but has a mass which is over two-and-a-half times greater -and reaches a dayside temperature of over 2000°C (2330 Kelvin).

It finds itself very close to its host star (0.012 AU, around a hundredth of the distance between Earth and the Sun), which itself is a medium-sized active K dwarf in the Virgo Constellation. K2-229b orbits this star every fourteen hours.

Led overall by researchers at Aix-Marseille Université in France, Dr David Armstrong and colleagues at the University of Warwick’s Astronomy and Astrophysics Group independently detected the planet in the first instance, alongside researchers at the Universidade do Porto.

Using the K2 telescope, Dr Armstrong and colleagues employed the Doppler spectroscopy technique — also known as the ‘wobble method’ to discover and characterise this faraway planet.

The astronomers knew the planet was there due to dips in the light from its host star as it orbited, periodically blocking starlight.

They then calculated the size, position and mass of K2-229b by measuring the radial velocity of the star, and finding out how much the starlight ‘wobbles’ during orbit, due to the gravitational tug from the planet, which changes depending on the planet’s size.

Dr David Armstrong from the University of Warwick’s Astronomy and Astrophysics Group, commented: “Mercury stands out from the other Solar System terrestrial planets, showing a very high fraction of iron and implying it formed in a different way. We were surprised to see an exoplanet with the same high density, showing that Mercury-like planets are perhaps not as rare as we thought.

“Interestingly K2-229b is also the innermost planet in a system of at least 3 planets, though all three orbit much closer to their star than Mercury. More discoveries like this will help us shed light on the formation of these unusual planets, as well as Mercury itself.”

The dense, metallic nature of K2-229b has numerous potential origins, and one hypothesis is that its atmosphere might have been eroded by intense stellar wind and flares, as the planet is so close to its star.

Another possibility is that K2-229b was formed after a huge impact between two giant astronomical bodies in space billions of years ago — much like the theory that the Moon was formed after Earth collided with a body the size of Mars.

Discovering details about far-flung planets across the universe gives us more clues as to how planets in our own solar system formed. As K2-229b is similar to Mercury, knowing more about the former can potentially reveal more about the latter.

The study, “An Earth-sized exoplanet with a Mercury-like composition,” is published in Nature Astronomy. The research was led by Aix-Marseille Université in France. The UK research was funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council.