The Lonely Giant: Milky Way-Sized Galaxy Lacking Galactic Neighbors

Long ago in a galaxy far, far away, fewer galaxies were born than expected — and that could create new questions for galaxy physics, according to a new University of Michigan study.

The study examined the satellite galaxies of Messier 94, or M94, a galaxy similar in size to our Milky Way. Researchers have long known the Milky Way has about 10 smaller, satellite galaxies surrounding it, each with at least a million stars, and up to more than a billion, such as the Magellanic Clouds.

Now, with the powerful Subaru telescope, astronomers can peer at galaxies five or 10 times the distance from the Milky Way, such as M94. They then can use the physics of how satellite galaxies form around the Milky Way to predict how many satellite galaxies a similar-sized galaxy such as M94 may have.

When U-M astronomers examined M94, they expected to find a similar number of satellite galaxies. However, they detected just two galaxies near M94, with very few stars each. Their results, led by Adam Smercina, a National Science Foundation fellow in the U-M Department of Astronomy, are published in the journal Astrophysical Letters.

“More than just an observational oddity, we show that the current crop of galaxy formation models cannot produce such a satellite system,” Smercina said. “Our results indicate that Milky Way-like galaxies most likely host a much wider diversity of satellite populations than is predicted by any current model.”

Smercina also says their results have implications for the current understanding of how galaxies form — which is in much larger halos of dark matter.

These halos of dark matter surrounding galaxies have immense gravitational force, and can pull in gas from their immediate vicinity. Large galaxies like the Milky Way generally form in halos of about the same mass. But these smaller satellite galaxies, which form in smaller ‘subhalos,’ are not nearly so dependable.

The production rate of high-mass stars in these satellite galaxies actually modulates their growth. If, for example, the nascent satellite galaxy forms too many high-mass stars at one time, their eventual supernova explosions might expel all its gas and halt all further growth. But astronomers are unsure at what size halo this ‘scatter’ in galaxy formation becomes important.

Smercina says M94 indicates that galaxy formation in intermediate-sized dark halos may be much more uncertain than previously thought.

“We think that that scatter — the range of galaxies we expect to see — may be a lot higher than what people currently think for dark matter halos of a certain mass,” he said. “Nobody’s under any illusions as to there being this huge scatter at the very lowest halo masses, but it’s at these intermediate dark matter halos that the discussion is happening.”

To observe the number of satellite dwarf galaxies around M94, the researchers took a composite image of the large galaxy. The image covered about 12 square degrees of the night sky — the full moon, for comparison, appears as about one square degree. This kind of image includes layers and layers of “noise,” including cosmic rays and scattered light, which make faint dwarf galaxies difficult to detect.

To make sure they weren’t missing satellite galaxies, Smercina and his team engineered artificial galaxies back into the image and recovered them using the same methods as for real satellites. With this technique, the researchers confirmed that were no more than two galaxies around M94.

“The real kicker is whether or not the community expected this could be possible,” Smercina said. “That is the real curiosity of this finding — the result is something the simulations don’t predict. When you can discover something we didn’t really think we could find, you can make a contribution to our understanding of how our universe works, that’s really rewarding.”

Merry Christmas to All and to All a Wake Up

Too many things going on to say good night… 🙂
Christmas is just a few days away and I have noticed there are a few of you who take joy in gifting my two kids…Alexa, now 10 and Sophia, now 6. If you have a specific gift you wish to give, there will be a place to leave a note in your check out. You can describe what gift you wish to obtain along with any note you wish to present to one or both. I plan on being out to the stores until they kick me out.

Also, I just wanted to say thank you for believing in me, and perhaps most importantly, supporting the direction I am heading….First, in the way of outlining and putting into formula what we now describe as “Space Weather”. Secondly, for turning my attention beyond the Sun – Earth connection and venturing into a similar connection between Earth, our solar system and our galaxy Milky Way. I will continue to research the driving forces which is the impetus of all natural rhythmic cycles….hence; Science Of Cycles.

Merry Christmas, Mitch

WREATHS ACROSS AMERICA UPDATE

Friday at 12 midnight Wreaths Across America will end. Wreath’s will be laid the following morning at military cemeteries across the nation. This will be done with full ceremonies honoring those who game their lives. My two girls will be in full scout dress for this event. See below to sponsor your wreath today.

What does it mean to sponsor a veteran’s wreath? It means you will honor an American hero at one of more than 1,400 locations nationwide this year on Wreaths Across America Day. It is a day that is been set aside to lay wreaths at the places where we remember, honor, teach about our veterans.

We cannot do that without your support, though. Your sponsorship will ensure that a wreath is hand-crafted of all-American balsam and hand-tied with a red velvet bow here in Columbia Falls, Maine. It will then be sent to one of our participating locations, where a volunteer will place it on the marker of a fallen hero. That volunteer will then “say their name” to ensure that the legacy of duty, service, and sacrifice of that veteran is never forgotten.

So, what does it mean to sponsor a wreath? It means you have the opportunity to join a grateful nation in saying “thank you” to our veterans.

My two daughters are in scouts and will personally be placing wreaths at our local military cemetery. Your sponsored wreath will go to a central location and will be disseminated to more than 1400 military cemeteries nationwide. Each sponsored wreath is $15 and there is no limit to your order.

BREAKING NEWS: Earth’s Magnetic Poles Could Start to Flip


Today’s article will come as no surprise to Science Of Cycles readers. There have been several articles SOC published regarding this issue going back to 2012. One of the highly contested questions regarding the pole shift…is ‘where’ on the time line are we measured as of today. I address this in a few of my previous articles. A significant conveying influence to the makings of a magnetic pole reversal is the deluge of cosmic rays which has an effect on the Earth’s mantle and outer core.

The process of convection is amplified which can produce an imbalance that could cause a ‘bulge’, also can produce an acceleration of mantle plumes – which in-turn causes heating of the oceans. These processes can have an effect of Earth’s dipole which creates the North and South magnetic direction. 

Furthermore, my research presents a hypothesis suggesting the influx of cosmic rays during extended solar minimum cycles which could range from 40,000 years to 700,000 years – each being its own cycle within a cycle, could be a contributing factor in historic global extinctions.

As you might have guessed, a large part of my research is the study of cycles, hence, my company’s title; Science Of Cycles.  I will be presenting my article titled “Cosmic Rays Role in Historic Extinctions” tomorrow, which will comprise the latest research published on December 6th 2018.

As Earth’s magnetic shield fails, so do its satellites.First, our communications satellites in the highest orbits go down. Next,astronauts in low-Earth orbit can no longer phone home. And finally, cosmic rays start to bombard every human on Earth.

If Earth’s magnetic field were to decay significantly, it could collapse altogether and flip polarity – changing magnetic north to south and vice versa. The consequences of this process could be dire for our planet. Most worryingly, we may be headed right for this scenario.

‘The geomagnetic field has been decaying for the last 3,000 years,’ said Dr. Nicolas Thouveny from the European Center for Research and Teaching of Environmental Geosciences (CEREGE) in Aix-en-Provence, France. ‘I fit continues to fall down at this rate, in less than one millennium we will be in a critical (period).’

Dr. Thouveny is one of the principal investigators on the five-year EDIFICE project, which has been running since 2014. Together with his colleagues, he has been investigating the history of Earth’s magnetic field,including when it has reversed in the past, and when it might again.

Cosmic rays: Our planet’s magnetic field is predominantly created by the flow of liquid iron inside the core. It has always been a feature of our planet, but it has flipped in polarity repeatedly throughout Earth’s history. Each time it flips – up to 100 times in the past 20 million years, while the reversal can take about 1,000 years to complete – it leaves fossilized magnetization in rocks on Earth.

By taking cores – or columns – of sediments from the seafloor, like a long straw that can extend down up to 300 meters with the help of a drill, we can look back in time and see when these reversals occurred. Dr. Thouveny and his team looked at two particular forms of elements that allowed them to probe the history of our planet’s magnetic field in greater detail.

For a polarity reversal to occur, the magnetic field needs to weaken by about 90% to a threshold level. This process can take thousands of years, and during this time, the lack of a protective magnetic shield around our planet allows more cosmic rays – high-energy particles from elsewhere in the universe – to hit us.

When this happens, these cosmic rays collide with more and more atoms in our atmosphere, such as nitrogen and oxygen. This produces variants of elements called cosmogenic isotopes, such as carbon-14 and beryllium-10, which fall to the surface. And by studying the quantities of these in cores, we can see when polarity reversals took place.

FULL ARTICLE – CLICK HERE

WREATHS ACROSS AMERICA SPONSORSHIP

What does it mean to sponsor a veteran’s wreath? It means you will honor an American hero at one of more than 1,400 locations nationwide this year on Wreaths Across America Day. It is a day that is been set aside to lay wreaths at the places where we remember, honor, teach about our veterans.

We cannot do that without your support, though. Your sponsorship will ensure that a wreath is hand-crafted of all-American balsam and hand-tied with a red velvet bow here in Columbia Falls, Maine. It will then be sent to one of our participating locations, where a volunteer will place it on the marker of a fallen hero. That volunteer will then “say their name” to ensure that the legacy of duty, service, and sacrifice of that veteran is never forgotten.

So, what does it mean to sponsor a wreath? It means you have the opportunity to join a grateful nation in saying “thank you” to our veterans.

My two daughters are in scouts and will personally be placing wreaths at our local military cemetery. Your sponsored wreath will go to a central location and will be disseminated to more than 1400 military cemeteries nationwide. Each sponsored wreath is $15 and there is no limit to your order.

UPDATED: Science Of Cycles Important Announcement

Here is an update to Science Of Cycles moving forward

I have been able to put off the Spectrum commitment for 7 days – for the reason that four people have come forward with $100 monthly commitments to keep SOC available to everyone. If just six more folks come forward with the same commitment, we will be off and running within 7to 10 days.

However, it certainly could be one person with a $500 monthly provision and one person with a $100 stipend or some combination thereof and we’re set. Note: When using this email address to reply (earthchanges@earthlink.net) you might get a auto-response to confirm you are not a robot – which is used to minimize spam of course.

Below is the original letter:

I am speaking with Spectrum network that offers a news channel in addition to their regular lineup. They are interested in my services to produce a science broadcast focused on many of the topics I cover on SOC.

Sounds great, and I should be jubilant; however, there is a reason I have not accepted previous offers. From past experience as well as speaking to many scientists I have interviewed over the years, I am reminded when you sell your services to agencies such as NASA and NOAA, freedom of expression is thwarted…and sometimes to extreme measures.

So before I sign on with Spectrum, I feel a strong compulsion to try one last time to maintain my independence, allowing me to present to you an unedited full throat analysis of events discovered and a full perspective of current research which is often not easily made available to the public.

With this in mind, I present this final evaluation. To maintain SOC services available to everyone, a need of a few sponsors to support a monthly provision of $1,000, or an annual support of $12,000. As you might have guessed, these amounts are simply to offset other expenses I incur. Whether it is one sponsor or divided by twenty sponsors, the sum amount remains the same of $12,000 yr. or $1,200 monthly.

In the last two years I have experimented with community based funding by placing a donation banner along with occasional special interest request. Although the community based funding did accomplish a significant goal – keeping this information available to everyone – I did find myself digging deep into my own pockets, which is simply not sustainable.

A benefit to you as a sponsor: I am more than happy to provide you with as much or as little exposure as you wish. In the ways of exposure, I will provide whatever advertising you need in the way of banners, announcements, tags on newsletters, and to provide a bit more exposure – I will announce you or company when I am a guest on talk shows and conferences.

My presumption is that you would agree that maintaining an emphasis of keeping our latest news and research available to everyone is a worthy cause. Perhaps the first and most important reason is the fact that the latest scientific findings of trends and cycles are likely to have an impact on all of us and I hope to have the freedom to inform you without restraint and in real-time.

I hope you find this proposal pleasing, and I look forward to further discussions to make sure we have win on all sides. You can contact me at: **earthchanges@earthlink.net**

Cheers, Mitch Battros

Underwater Volcano Chain Discovered Off Coast Of Tasmania

Scientists have discovered an underwater chain of volcanoes off the coast of Tasmania. A team from the Australian National University mapped the submerged terrain during a voyage aboard the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) research ship “Investigator.”

The underwater peaks, or seamounts, reach more than 9,000 feet high, but vary in shape and size. Researchers hope having detailed maps of the underwater area will help protect the environment, while aiding in future research.

“This is a very diverse landscape and will undoubtedly be a biological hotspot that supports a dazzling array of marine life,” Dr. Tara Martin from the CSIRO mapping team said in a statement.

So far, data from the research ship has already revealed increased marine life activity along the volcano chain.

“While we were over the chain of seamounts, the ship was visited by large numbers of humpback and long-finned pilot whales,” said Dr. Eric Woehler, who was aboard the Investigator. “Clearly these seamounts are a biological hotspot that supports life, both directly on them, as well as in the ocean above.”

According to Dr. Woehler, the whales may be using the seafloor to help navigate their way through the ocean during migration from winter breeding to summer feeding grounds.

The next step for researchers is to head back to the area, located about 250 miles east of Tasmania, off Australia’s southern coast. The Investigator has a voyage this month, and then another one in December. During the trips, researchers will be gathering high-resolution video of marine life, as well as collecting rock samples to study how this formed.